Democratic Republic of the Congo - Context and Land Governance | Land Portal
Plantation de palmiers à huile Feronia Yaligimba en RDC. Photo: Feronia

The Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a long war that has killed 3.5 million people and devastated the country. After the end of the conflict in 1997, the new government began rebuilding administrative systems and set new standards for good governance.  Congo’s population is composed of several ethnic groups, most of which are of Bantu origin. More than half of the population is rural, with agriculture accounting for 41% of the total GDP.

The Constitution of 2005 establishes that every person has right to enjoy the country’s natural resources and that the state is responsible for the equal distribution of these resources.  The General Property Law of 1973 gives the state the ownership of all land, also allowing for customary rights to regulate the use of unallocated land in rural areas. Despite the existence of land related legislation, customary law still governs a significant part of land in Congo.  The administration of land is assigned to traditional authorities, which usually cooperate with government officials.

Land disputes in the Congo are generally related to the control of land, the occupation of abandoned land and lack of known principles governing land tenure. Formal courts are entitled to resolve land related conflicts. However, these courts lack of financial means and basic human resources, and they also face interference from political and military leaders.  Traditional authorities may resolve land disputes, but they are weak in some rural areas and often they do not have the skills to deal with land issues in a post-conflict environment. 

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Total funding (US $) for programmes still ongoing. Last updated on the 31st of January, 2019.

Measurement unit: 
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing. Last updated on the 31st of January, 2019.

Measurement unit: 
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)
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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number
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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee), land under trees and shrubs producing flowers (such as roses and jasmine), and n

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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