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Uruguay is one of the smallest countries in South America and is unofficially defined as the only one without a native indigenous population. Two phenomena have characterized land governance in Uruguay: the concentration of land in the


Egypt’s total land area is 995,450 km2 while most of the population lives on less than 5% of the land. Only 3.6% of the land is arable and the remaining 96.4% is dominated by a vast desert plateau. By 2030, Egypt’s growing population


With a surface area of 56,790 km², Togo is one of the smallest countries on the African continent. Although land legislation is still influenced by the colonial legacy, one of the distinctive features of the Togolese system is the


In the indigenous Náhualt language, Guatemala means land of many trees. Today, the country retains its predominantly rural character, occupying most of its 108,888 km2 . Located in Central America, it borders Mexico, Belize, Honduras


Land governance in Cuba has reflected the country's political history. The implementation of a socialist model since the Cuban Revolution resulted in the control of land ownership in the hands of the state or in the hands of cooperative

Costa Rica

Costa Rica stands out for its efforts to protect the environment, with 26% of its territory protected. This, together with increasing urbanisation, has had an impact on agriculture, a declining sector. Land governance poses challenges


Iraq is a multi-cultural society and post war country that has been deeply influenced by political conflicts over the last 30 years. With a total land of 435,052 Km2, Iraq ranks 59th worldwide in terms of area. Iraq's population is


Venezuela is a country of extremes and paradoxes. On the one hand, it is at the top of the world ranking of oil reserves with 303,806 million barrels estimated in 2021. On the other hand, 96% of Venezuelan households live in poverty and


Thailand has a long-standing continuity to its legal framework with a significant amount of its land held under private titles. This reflects the country’s unique position in mainland Southeast Asia, having never been formally colonised


Azerbaijan has a majority urban-based population and an economy fuelled by oil reserves. As a result of the land reform, the land fund of the republic was distributed among private, municipal and state properties. Livestock is the most


Bangladesh is home to the largest river delta in the world and known to be one of the most populated countries in the world. The pressure over land is high, also because Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the


In the last two years, Chile’s history has been marked by the debate to reform its national Constitution. Land rights, environmental protection and water management were key topics on the agenda. One of the most significant aspects of