Agenda 2030 makes it possible for countries to monitor the proportion of the total adult population with secure tenure rights to land. This indicator focuses on two components of tenure security that work to advance the concept of the continuum of tenure rights:
- The proportion of the adult population with documented tenure rights that are legally recognized by governments.
- The proportion of the adult population who perceive their tenure rights as legally secure, regardless of whether these rights are documented.
Legal documentation goes beyond land ownership by title deed and includes other legally enforceable documentation of user rights. For this component, National Statistical Offices (NSOs) will use administrative data from government registries and cadaster systems.
Security of tenure is the certainty that a person’s rights to land will be recognized by others and protected in cases of specific challenges. People with insecure tenure face the risk that their rights to land will be threatened by competing claims, and even lost as a result of eviction.
Measuring perception of tenure security entails capturing the extent to which individuals, households and communities perceive their tenure as secure and measuring their fears of threats to their land rights. Data on perception of tenure security will be collected through national population surveys (survey data). In addition to informal tenure rights holders, landholders with legally documented land rights may still feel that their land rights are vulnerable to infringement by outsiders.
Indicator 1.4.2 covers both rural and urban tenure. Indicator 1.4.2 is classified by the Inter-agency and Expert Group on the Sustainable Development Goals (IAEG-SDGs) as Tier III. This means the indicator’s conceptual clarity and the methodology for monitoring the indicator is currently being developed, and the indicator’s baseline data is being compiled.
GLII and the Global Donor Working Group on Land supported the efforts of the custodian agencies to elevate indicator 1.4.2 to Tier II status at the IAEG-SDGs meeting in November 2017.
Number of years
|Countries / Obs||Min / Max Value|
|Percent of Indigenous and Community Lands - Formally recognised|
|Percent of Indigenous and Community Lands - Not formally recognised|
|Population living in slums (% of urban population)|
Experts reach consensus on measuring Indicator 1.4.2.
Experts agree on a set of household survey questions that will be included in the global and national-level surveys and censuses to measure how secure peoples’ land and property rights are.
IAEG-SDG recommends deleting Target 1.4
3rd Expert Group Meeting: Using Administrative Data to Monitor SDG land
Particularly, the objectives of this EGM were to agree on the methodology to monitor indicator 1.4.2 pertaining to legally documented rights using administrative data and to assess availability of existing data and explore ways of institutionalizing reporting at country and regional level.
Sixth meeting of the IAEG-SDGs
Particularly the objectives of this meeting have been to review tier classification. The work of those in the land sector came to fruition when indicator 1.4.2 was finally bumped from Tier III to Tier II status.
High-Level Political Forum 2021
The ministerial declaration of the high-level segment of the 2021 session of the Economic and Social Council and the high-level political forum on sustainable development reiterated the urgency to ensure women’s equal access to, and control over, land and natural resources.
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