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Land Distribution, Incentives and the Choice of Production Techniques in Nicaragua

Reports & Research
Noviembre, 2016
Nicaragua
Norway

Does the distribution of land rights affect the choice of contractible techniques? I present evidence suggesting that Nicaraguan farmers are more likely to grow effort-intensive crops on owned rather than on rented plots. I consider two theoretical arguments that illustrate why property rights might matter. In the first the farmer is subject to limited liability; in the second the owner cannot commit to output-contingent contracts. In both cases choices might be inefficient regardless of land distribution. The efficiency loss, however, is lower when the farmer owns the land.

Land Conflict in India

Reports & Research
Octubre, 2016
India

Land and resource conflicts in India have deep implications for the wellbeing of the country's people, institutions, investments, and long-term development. These conflicts reveal deep structural flaws in the country's social, agrarian, and institutional structures, including ambiguities in property rights regimes and institutions.


Amaqamu & Emakhasaneni v Minister of Rural Development and Land Reform

Legislation & Policies
Octubre, 2016
África
Sudáfrica

This is a judgement in the Land Claims Court which concerned the validity of land claims lodged under The Restitution of Land Rights Amendment Act 15 of 2014. This act was an amended version of the Restitution of Land rights Act 22 f 1994 which differed by extending the time frame for persons, descendants, or communities who were disposed of land after 1913 to lodge land claims.  Previously the cut-off date under the 1994 to lodge claims was 31st December 1998. Under the 2014 Act, claims could up lodged from the passing of the act until 30 June 2019.

São Tomé e Príncipe: reflexões sobre alguns aspectos de sua história agrícola no pós-independência

Journal Articles & Books
Octubre, 2016
África
São Tomé e Príncipe

O artigo proposto para o dossiê apresenta reflexões sobre aspectos da história agrícola do país no momento da independência e no pós-independência. A perspectiva escolhida apresentou-se como pertinente para refletir sobre a política do país durante as décadas que seguiram a Independência.

Land Distribution and Rice Sufficiency in Northern Laos

Reports & Research
Octubre, 2016
Norway

Backward agriculture, inadequate farm income and absolute poverty have long characterized the economy of developing countries. Unequal distribution of agricultural land is often cited as a source of poverty and inefficiency in agriculture. However, much of literature on smallholders tends to address income inequality and (total) land size, while land inequality has been overlooked in those discourses. In view of filling the research gap, this paper provides a micro-level foundation for discussions on land inequality and food security in Laos as a case study for least developed countries.

The risks of defending human rights

Reports & Research
Septiembre, 2016
América Latina y el Caribe

Oxfam is deeply concerned about the worsening levels of violence, murder and repression against the men and women defending human rights in Latin America. This situation is linked to an economic model that fosters extreme inequality and has a negative impact on people’s basic rights.

It is the result of harassment entrenched in a patriarchal culture, and governments' failure to fulfil their human rights obligations –and the influence of powerful groups on governments that limits their role as guarantors of human rights for their citizens.

AN ANALYSIS OF LAND DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATION IN BOLIVIA

Reports & Research
Septiembre, 2016
Bolivia
United States of America

Despite the implementation of Bolivia's land reform in 1953, the agrarian structure continues to have an extreme concentration of land. Furthermore, in the last two decades regional agrarian structure have been aggravated by population pressures and a lack of new technological practices for most small scale farmers and peasants. Public and private institutions and urban residents observe hundreds of landless and near-landless families in the cities searching for jobs. Most end up becoming part of the growing unemployed labor force in the urban sector.

La visión de desarrollo y su incidencia en la implementación del acuerdo uno (1) de La Habana sobre desarrollo rural integral, desde el enfoque de paz territorial y los mecanismos construidos por las comunidades negras en el Medio Atrato

Reports & Research
Septiembre, 2016
Colombia

Este trabajo da cuenta de la visión de desarrollo y su incidencia en la implementación del acuerdo uno (1) de la Habana sobre Desarrollo Rural Integral, desde el enfoque de paz territorial y los mecanismos construidos para la consecución de la paz en sus territorios por las comunidades negras en el Medio Atrato Chocoano.

Rodeito, la lucha incansable de un sindicato agrario por su territorio

Reports & Research
Junio, 2016
Bolivia

Sobre la lucha permanente contra exhacendados por el acceso y tenencia de la tierra de integrantes de la comunidad, en situación precaria de posesión legal de tierras, sin ningún tipo de documentación que respalde su derecho propietario, pero que de acuerdo a la normativa legal vigente y los usos y costumbres, estaban cumpliendo con todos los requisitos que debe cumplir un poseedor legal.

Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh

Mayo, 2016

The rural economy in Bangladesh has been
a powerful source of economic growth and has substantially
reduced poverty, especially since 2000, but the remarkable
transformation and unprecedented dynamism in rural
Bangladesh are an underexplored, underappreciated, and
largely untold story. The analysis identifies the key
changes occurring in the rural economy, the principal
drivers of rural incomes, the implications for policy, and

Encroaching on Land and Livelihoods: How National Expropriation Laws Measure Up Against International Standards

Policy Papers & Briefs
Mayo, 2016
Global

Encroaching on Lands and Livelihoods considers whether national expropriation laws in 30 countries across Asia and Africa follow the international standards established in Section 16 of the VGGTs. It analyzes laws against a set of 24 indicators (hereinafter “expropriation indicators”) based on the standards established in Section 16 and provides examples of expropriation practices drawn from literature reviews to illustrate the importance of adopting international standards.