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The fragmentation of land tenure systems in Cambodia: peasants and the formalization of land rights

Reports & Research
Diciembre, 2015
Camboya

ABSTRACTED FROM THE INTRODUCTION: This working paper is an examination of current land formalization processes against the backdrop of Cambodian history and the political economy of land and agrarian change. I... critique the land property right formalisation processes at play under the current land reforms. I present their rationales, mechanisms and influences on Cambodian peasants. I then detail the dynamics of land differentiation in the central rice plain and reveal how it has initiated a large migration to the peripheral uplands.

Myanmar: Land Tenure Issues and the Impact on Rural Development

Reports & Research
Diciembre, 2015
Myanmar

ABSTRACTED FROM THE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Myanmar’s agricultural sector has for long suffered due to multiplicity of laws and regulations, deficient and degraded infrastructure, poor policies and planning, a chronic lack of credit, and an absence of tenure security for cultivators. These woes negate Myanmar’s bountiful natural endowments and immense agricultural potential, pushing its rural populace towards dire poverty. This review hopes to contribute to the ongoing debate on land issues in Myanmar.

Complex of actions for creation of economic prerequisites for activization of a turn of agricultural grounds

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre, 2015
Rusia

The condition of the market for of lands of agricultural purpose in modern Russia is analyzed and the complex of actions for economic prerequisites creation for activization of farm land rotation is offered. The state has to undertake urgently measures to increase the control not only over intended use of lands and their involvement in an agricultural rotation, but also over agriculture rationality. The international experience shows the active usage of land resources as pledge. Removal of obstacles of pledge transactions development is also needed in Russia.

Land issues in Vietnam 2006–14: Markets, property rights, and investment

Policy Papers & Briefs
Diciembre, 2015
Viet Nam

This paper uses five waves of the Vietnam Access to Resources Household Survey (VARHS) to analyse land issues in Viet Nam from a number of different angles. The VARHS provides panel data at plot as well as household level and I use this rich data set to present descriptive results on landlessness, land fragmentation, land market activities, and land property rights. I use plot level, fixed effects regressions to investigate the effects of land titles (Land Use Certificates) on household investment.

The Challenge of Democratic and Inclusive Land Policymaking in Myanmar: A Response to the Draft National Land Use Policy

Reports & Research
Diciembre, 2015
Myanmar

ABSTRACTED FROM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: In October 2014 the Myanmar government unveiled a draft National Land Use Policy (NLUP) and announced it would take public comments for a limited time before finalizing the document. Once it is finalized, the new policy will determine the distribution, use and management of the country’s land and related natural resources like forests and rivers, for years to come.

Poverty and Land Distribution: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Reports & Research
Noviembre, 2015
South Africa
Southern Africa

While land reforms have long been motivated as a potential policy lever of rural growth and development, there is remarkably little evidence of the direct impacts of such reforms. In an effort to fill this lacunae, this paper examines South Africa's Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD) program. We show that the implementation of this program operates as a natural experiment in which self-selected and administratively-filltered LRAD applicants receive land transfers at random points in time.

Land Distribution and Financial System Development

Reports & Research
Septiembre, 2015
Norway

Research on credit markets from developing economies, as well as work on the origin of institutions in general, has suggested that land inequality may play a role in determining financial development. In this paper we establish empirically that initial land inequality is a significant predictor of financial depth across countries, even while controlling for other predictors such as legal origin, ethnic fractionalization, and income inequality.

Land access and livelihoods in post-conflict Timor-Leste: no magic bullets

Journal Articles & Books
Agosto, 2015
Timor-Leste

In Timor-Leste, customary institutions contribute to sustainable and equitable rural development and the establishment of improved access to and management of land, water and other natural resources. Drawing on multi-sited empirical research, we argue that the recognition and valorization of custom and common property management is a prerequisite for sustainable and equitable land tenure reform in Timor-Leste.

Drawbacks of land administration system in Bangladesh and some feasible solutions

Journal Articles & Books
Julio, 2015
Bangladesh

The land administration system in Bangladesh is not well-developed. It is beset with multiple defects and problems. It is corrupt, inefficient, and unreliable and inherently contains systematic weaknesses. Corruption has become a grave issue in this sector. A World Bank survey reveals that most crimes and corruptions in Bangladesh take place in land-related services. It has estimated that more than 3.2 million land-related cases are pending before the judiciary. A large number of the aggrieved persons is not empowered enough to approach the courts for litigation.

The Consumption, Income, and Wealth of the Poorest

Julio, 2015

This paper provides new empirical
insights on the joint distribution of consumption, income,
and wealth in three of the poorest countries in the world —
Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda — all located in Sub-Saharan
Africa (SSA). The first finding is that while income
inequality is similar to that of the United States (US),
wealth inequality is barely one-third that of the US.
Similarly, while the top of the income distribution (1 and

Smallholders’ Land Ownership and Access in Sub-Saharan Africa

Julio, 2015

While scholars agree on the importance
of land rental markets for structural transformation in
rural areas, evidence on the extent and nature of their
operation, including potential obstacles to their improved
functioning, remains limited. This study uses
household-level data from six countries to start filling
this gap and derive substantive as well as methodological
lessons. The paper finds that rental markets transfer land