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Os conflitos pela terra no Amapá: uma análise sobre a violência institucionalizada no campo

Journal Articles & Books
Enero, 2015
Brasil

O texto aborda a dinâmica dos conflitos fundiários no Estado do Amapá. O trabalho resgata a gênese desse processo, apresentado pela política e pela mídia como uma relação pacífica no campo. Na realidade, contudo, o Amapá constitui um dos estados da Federação com significativas incidências de disputas por terra. Para a realização da pesquisa foram coletados dados, especialmente, da Comissão Pastoral da Terra, por meio dos seus registros anuais (Conflitos no Campo); mas também foram realizados levantamentos sobre a dinâmica do campesinato e sua recriação no Amapá.

Agribusiness Models for Inclusive Growth in Myanmar: Diagnosis and Ways Forward

Policy Papers & Briefs
Diciembre, 2014
Myanmar

Successful development experiences have demonstrated the greater efficiency achieved with a growth strategy based on small and medium-scale farmers (SMFs). This study is sought to identify potential agribusiness models for enhancing inclusive growth through NGOs partnerships with SMFs in Myanmar. The paper illustrates that agricultural sector in Myanmar is characterised by already high land inequality and landlessness, and low productivity of most SMFs.

Cambodia’s land management and administration project

Policy Papers & Briefs
Diciembre, 2014
Camboya

This paper presents the case of World Bank support to the mass titling component of the Cambodia Land Management and Administration Project. This was a project for which there was clear national demand, as evidenced by the fact that the Cambodian government had already attempted to implement mass titling a decade previously, but had lacked the human and technical resources to complete it. The case describes a consensus between donors and a host nation government during the planning and approval of the intervention, which dissolves into conflict during implementation.

Land poverty and emerging ruralities in Cambodia: Insights from Kampot province

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre, 2014
Camboya

Rural change in Cambodia manifests itself in rapidly declining land availability for the smallholder sector, posing the question of how farmers may be able to deal with limited access to land. In this paper, we discuss with a case study village and household livelihood strategies of smallholders currently operating under land-constrained conditions. Based on an integrated assessment of a smallholder village in Kampot province, we illustrate in quantitative terms how land shortage is creating problems of surplus generation and liquidity issues in monetary and non-monetary flows.

Natural Resources and Subnational Governments in Myanmar: Key considerations for wealth sharing

Policy Papers & Briefs
Diciembre, 2014
Myanmar

This report provides an overview of state and regional governments’ roles in natural resource governance, highlighting the mining, oil and gas, timber, and hydropower sectors. This report is the fourth volume in the Subnational Governance in Myanmar Discussion Paper Series, which aims to inform future analysis of the potential risks and benefits of changes to the role of subnational governments. This report is funded by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID).

Strategic Choices Shaping Agricultural Performace and Food Security in Myanmar

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre, 2014
Myanmar

Despite the many transformations taking place in Myanmar, its agricultural sector is lagging. A high proportion of rural households remain poor and food insecure as a result. This article examines the underlying causes of poor agricultural performance through a combination of literature and secondary data review combined with extensive field interviews with a broad range of key informants in the main agricultural zones of the country. We identify key structural changes that are needed to unleash smallholder-led agricultural transformation and broad-based rural economic growth.

Mapping mountain diversity: Ethnic minorities and land use land cover change in Vietnam's borderlands

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre, 2014
Viet Nam

In the complex agro-ecological conditions of Vietnam's northern borderlands, attempts by ethnic minority farmers to create sustainable livelihoods, along with the impacts of state development policies, have direct consequences for land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this paper we analyse the degree to which LULC has changed and diversified from 1999 to 2009 in Lào Cai Province and the underlying relationships with ethnic minority livelihood diversification strategies.

The Political Economy of Myanmar’s Transition

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre, 2014
Myanmar

Since holding elections in 2010, Myanmar has transitioned from a direct military dictatorship to a formally democratic system and has embarked on a period of rapid economic reform. After two decades of military rule, the pace of change has startled almost everyone and led to a great deal of cautious optimism. To make sense of the transition and assess the case for optimism, this article explores the political economy of Myanmar’s dual transition from state socialism to capitalism and from dictatorship to democracy.

Potential, realised, future distribution and environmental suitability for pterocarpus angolensis DC in southern Africa.

Policy Papers & Briefs
Diciembre, 2014

The deciduous tree species Pterocarpus angolensis occurs in the dry woodlands of southern Africa and grows under a broad range of environmental conditions. It is threatened by overharvesting due to its valuable timber (Blood wood, Kiaat) and by land use changes. Information on the most suitable environmental conditions for the species is often old and anecdotal, while available data on its occurrence refer to range extent and not to distribution.

Evolution of land use in the Brazilian Amazon : From frontier expansion to market chain dynamics

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre, 2014
Brazil

Agricultural census data and fieldwork observations are used to analyze changes in land cover/use intensity across Rondônia and Mato Grosso states along the agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. Results show that the development of land use is strongly related to land distribution structure. While large farms have increased their share of annual and perennial crops, small and medium size farms have strongly contributed to the development of beef and milk market chains in both Rondônia and Mato Grosso.

Land Distribution, Incentives and the Choice of Production Techniques in Nicaragua

Reports & Research
Diciembre, 2014
Nicaragua
Norway

The distribution of property rights has a strong impact on output when, due to the non-contractibility of some inputs, market contracts do not yield efficient outcomes. In this Paper I analyse how the distribution of land rights affects the choice of both contractible techniques – such as crop mix or irrigation – and non-contractible effort when these are complements in production. I present evidence from rural Nicaragua suggesting that farmers are more likely to grow effort-intensive/highly profitable crops on the plots they own rather than on the plots they rent.