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Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change : The Economic Problem

Mayo, 2014

Climate change is both a cause and an
effect of biodiversity change. Along with anthropogenic
dispersion, climate change is the main driver of change in
the geographical distribution of both beneficial and harmful
species, crops, livestock, harvested wild species, pests,
predators and pathogens. And the capacity of ecosystems to
adapt to climate change depends on the diversity of species
they currently support. This paper considers the connection

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise : A Review of the Scientific Evidence

Mayo, 2014

Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate
change is a serious global threat: the scientific evidence
is now overwhelming. The rate of global sea level rise was
faster from 1993 to 2003, about 3.1 mm per year, as compared
to the average rate of 1.8 mm per year from 1961 to 2003
(IPCC, 2007); and significantly higher than the average rate
of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr increase recorded by geological data
over the last 3,000 years. Anthropogenic warming and SLR

Mainstreaming Environment and Climate Change in the Implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies

Mayo, 2014

Poverty reduction strategies (PRSs)
provide a central framework for macroeconomic, structural,
and social policies in developing countries. Because of the
numerous and complex links between environment and poverty,
it is important that environmental issues are taken into
account in the PRS process. This paper follows six previous
assessments of the degree of mainstreaming environment in
the PRS process using a similar methodology to present

Afghanistan - Scoping Strategic Options for Development of the Kabul River Basin : A Multisectoral Decision Support System Approach

Mayo, 2014

The objective of this study is to
develop an integrated basin planning framework for analyzing
and prioritizing water resources development options in
Afghanistan, and to demonstrate its application in the Kabul
River basin. Accordingly, the study focuses on the tasks of:
(a) analyzing the medium and long-term options for
developing the water resources of the Kabul River basin for
multiple purposes, including domestic and industrial water

Closing the Feedback Loop : Can Technology Bridge the Accountability Gap?

Reports & Research
Abril, 2014

Enhanced transparency, accountability, and government or donor responsiveness to people needs are imperative to achieve better and more sustainable development results on the ground. The rapid spread of new technologies is transforming the daily lives of millions of poor people around the world and has the potential to be a real game changer for development.

River Salinity and Climate Change : Evidence from Coastal Bangladesh

Abril, 2014

In a changing climate, saltwater
intrusion is expected to worsen in low-lying coastal areas
around the world. Understanding the physical and economic
effects of salinity ingress, and planning adaptation, are
key to the long-term development of countries for which sea
level rise has been identified as a major risk from climate
change. This paper presents a study conducted in Bangladesh,
which quantifies the prospective relationship between

Romania : Forest Sector Rapid Assessment

Abril, 2014

Romania relies on the European
Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) to achieve its
commitments to the European Union (EU) 2020 targets. The use
of the European Agriculture and Rural Development Fund
(EARDF) requires that at least 30 percent of the budget
allocated for rural development as part of the National
Rural Development Plan (NRDP) be spent on the environment
and addressing climate change. The forest sector rapid

Watershed Management Approaches, Policies, and Operations : Lessons for Scaling Up

Marzo, 2014

The report begins with definitions of
watersheds and watershed management, a characterization of
the problem of watershed degradation, and a short history of
watershed management operations and policies (Chapter 1).
The following four chapters discuss the findings from
experience with implementing watershed management programs
over the last 20 years based both on the project review and
on the literature. The second chapter discusses the findings

Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Transport

Febrero, 2014

The Congo Basin is among the most poorly
served areas in terms of transport infrastructure in the
world, and it faces a challenging environment with dense
tropical forests crisscrossed by numerous rivers that
require construction of numerous bridges. Given such
complexities, constructing transport infrastructure as well
as properly maintaining it is certainly a key challenge for
the Congo Basin countries. Recent studies indicate that

Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Logging

Enero, 2014

The Congo Basin has the largest forest
cover on the African continent. Of the 400 million hectares
that the Basin comprises, about 200 million of them are
covered by forest, with 90 percent being tropical dense
forests. The Congo Basin's logging sector has a
dualistic configuration. It boasts a highly visible formal
sector that is export oriented and dominated by large
industrial groups with foreign capital and an informal

Sourcebook for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Projects

Enero, 2014

This sourcebook is designed to be a
guide for developing and implementing land use, land-use
change and forestry (LULUCF) projects for the BioCarbon Fund
of the World Bank that meet the requirements for the Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Only
project types and carbon pools that are eligible for credit
under the CDM during the first commitment period (2008-2012)
are covered. With its user-friendly format, the sourcebook