The historical progress of Hagia Sophia encompasses four different periods. Dating back to 360 AD, this unique structure was the largest church built in Istanbul during the Roman Period. In the second period, Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered Istanbul in 1453 and personally dedicated Hagia Sophia to his foundation as a mosque.
There is a risk of salinity and degradation in soil structure due to excessive irrigation in the GAP-Harran Plain.
Green infrastructure (GI) is a strategic planning approach that can contribute to solutions for ecological, social, and environmental problems. GI also aims to conserve natural and semi-natural landscapes and enhance ecological networks. Within the scope of spatial planning, urban and rural landscape units can be integrated through GI planning.
With the widespread use of three-dimensional (3D) geographic information technologies, studies for 3D digital representation of property units in cadasters have increased in recent years. In Turkey, a project named 3D City Models and Cadasters was initiated by the General Directorate of Land Registries and Cadasters in 2018.
ICARDA continued to play a critical role in the development, improvement, and dissemination of climate-resilient crop varieties last year. The varieties strengthened food and nutritional security and provided a critical defense against extreme temperatures, water scarcity, and the emergence of new pests and diseases.
Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia is diverse, and has great potential to revitalize the economy of the countries in the region via improved productivity (efficiency) and higher total yield for food, fodder and fibre crops. Conservation agriculture can rise to the major challenge of making sustainable intensification of production systems a reality.
This evaluation assessed strategic positioning of the first phase of the FAO-Turkey programme, its results and contributions, sustainability, as well as coherence and catalytic effects. It noted that the programme facilitated a beneficial collaboration between the Turkish Government and regional and international experts.
A robust regulatory framework for the corporate governance of water user's organizations is a fundamental ingredient of irrigation management transfer policies. The present publication offers a comparative analysis of the contemporary legislation of a wide variety of countries, providing the needed regulatory framework for water user's organizations to function and grow.
Shortly after the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was founded in 1945, the organization had started to support member countries addressing structural problems in agriculture with land fragmentation and small holding and farm sizes through the development of land consolidation instruments (Binns, 1950).
This ‘Policy Analysis of Nationally Determined Contributions in Europe and Central Asia’ follows up on the previous effort to report on implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions in the region.