Explore land rights and governance issues using the filters below, and browse our collection of 60+ country portfolios developed in collaboration with local partners from around the world.
Due to decades of political and economic instability, the management and ownership of land in Afghanistan is complex, characterized by insecure land rights and extensive land conflict. Approximately one quarter to one third of rural families own no land and a significant number live in landlord houses.
Albania has significant natural resources, including fertile agricultural land, an Adriatic/Ionian coastline, abundant water resources with hydropower potential and valuable mineral deposits. Since the fall of communism in 1991, the country has made significant progress toward establishing a multi-party democracy and has implemented numerous economic reforms. Albania‘s economy is one of the fastest growing in Europe (averaging 5.5% in the 2006 – 2009 period) and the percentage of the population living in poverty fell from 25% in 2002 to 12% in 2008.
Land tenure in Angola has been strongly affected by 27 years of civil war that disrupted customary rights and land allocation while forcing rural communities from their land. As a consequence, agricultural production strongly declined, the country became dependent on imports and humanitarian aid to feed its population and more than half of the population (57%) moved from rural to urban areas, concentrated in informal settlements without adequate services.
Bangladesh is a densely populated country with a population of 163 million and a total land area of 147,570 km2. Arable land (hectares per person) in Bangladesh was last measured at 0.05 in 2011.
Land has always been a fundamental issue in Bolivia. It is the backbone of demands by the country’s peasant and indigenous movements. Thus, it also has been part of government programs and of other national actors´ agendas.
Since 1966, after independence, Botswana has become a relatively stable and prosperous country where the population has access to clean water, education and health care. 58% of the population lives in urban areas, while the rest lives in rural areas characterized by a low level of production and income (97% of all poor live in rural areas) due to the harsh climatic conditions, limited arable land and fragile ecosystems.
Located in Western Africa, Burkina Faso is a landlocked country to the north of Ghana. Eighty percent of the population is rural, making a living primarily through agriculture, livestock and forestry on small family farms. Cotton is the main cash crop, and cotton and gold are the country’s main exports. The country is subject to endemic droughts, which along with land use changes, population pressures, and land tenure insecurity have contributed to food shortages. Almost half of the population lives in poverty.
Burundi‘s history of political conflict over the last 50 years has revolved in large measure around issues of access to land for agriculture. 91% of the total land is classified as agricultural land and the majority of Burundi’s population (90%) lives in rural areas.
Land lies at the center of debates about Cambodia’s socio-economic development. For farmers in the fertile lowlands, private land ownership rights have enabled recovery of their livelihoods after decades of conflict.
Despite the abundance of its natural resources, in Cameroon 40% of the population is poor, especially women and children, and concentrated in rural areas.
The Central African Republic is a sparsely populated country well-endowed with natural resources –land, forests and minerals – that could have accelerated the country’s development. However, the political instability in the Central African Republic has prevented the construction of infrastructure and basic services such as hospitals and schools.
Chad is the fifth largest African country, with a population of about 11 million people, 73% of them living in rural areas and 27% in urban areas. The country is rich in oil resources and in recent years it experienced an increase of revenues thanks to the oil production. However, Chad remains one of the poorest countries in Africa.