Explore land rights and governance issues using the filters below, and browse our collection of 60+ country portfolios developed in collaboration with local partners from around the world.
Mali is a landlocked country in the heart of the Sahel and it is one of the more food secure countries in the sub-region. Since 1992, the government adopted policies inspired by economic liberalization and political decentralization that have fostered the economic growth of the country. Agriculture accounts for 37% of the national GDP, about 68% of the population is rural and 79% of the active population works in agriculture.
Mexico is an upper-middle-income country whose economy has grown steadily but much more slowly than that of other emerging-market countries. Mexico was hard hit by the global economic crisis because of its dependence on oil exports, trade with and remittances from the United States. Mexico‘s GDP actually fell by 6.5% in 2009, but it is expected to rebound and resume a steady but slow rate of growth.
In the last two decades, Mongolia started a transition from a centrally planned economy to a free market economy. This change had led to ambiguous land rights, confusion over governance and increasing inequality in asset holdings, particularly for women.
Morocco is mostly an arid country in which agriculture accounts for a very low percentage of the total GDP, but employs half of the country’s population. About 27% of the population in Morocco is considered poor and 70% of the poor people live in rural areas.
Myanmar is in the midst of rapid economic and social change, with dramatic consequences for land tenure. Under the military regimes that ruled Myanmar since 1962, the state was the main landowner, either directly or (after 1988) via proxy companies.
Namibia is the most arid country in sub-Saharan Africa, with approximately 63% of the total population in rural areas. Namibia is considered a middle income country, although it has the highest income disparity in the world and an unequal distribution of land and natural resources.
Nepal is a country rich in geographical, ethnic and social diversity. The majority of its population is Hindu, and the country is managed by a stratified and hierarchical structure that controls access to land and natural resources.
Nicaragua’s tumultuous political history reflects the dramatic impacts that differing perspectives on property rights and resource governance can have on the structure and performance of societies and economies. The Somoza regimes that governed Nicaragua from 1936 to 1979 emphasized the primacy of private property rights and the pursuit of an export market-oriented, large-scale commercial agriculture. These policies resulted in an economy in which rural land ownership was concentrated in the hands of relatively few Nicaraguans who operated farms producing coffee, cotton, sugar, tobacco, and beef for export, largely to the United States.
Niger is characterized by political instability, which has led to conflicts and food security crises. The country is one of the poorest in the world, and in 2003 agriculture accounted for 17% of the total GDP. Approximately 83% of the population is rural, and 60% of it does not have access to safe drinking water.
Nigeria is a middle income country that primarily generates revenue through its natural resources, particularly the export of oil, which puts the country among the 10 larger exporters of oil in the world and represents one third of Nigeria’s GDP. However, Nigeria’s economy also depends on agriculture, which provides employment for more than half the rural population.
Land in Pakistan is highly concentrated, which is source of poverty and instability in the country. Land is considered the principal asset in the rural economy, but unequal access to land and inefficient systems of water management have contributed to land degradation, poverty and instability. In Pakistan, 63% of the total population is rural and 43% is landless and lacks access to water or an irrigation system.
In Paraguay, land is still a factor that determines the living conditions of a majority of the population. Current land tenure is characterized by a huge concentration of land being put in the hands of a small group of landowners. This unequal distribution of land is the result of a long and contentious history that has caused the dispossession and uprooting of thousands of men and women in the countryside. Meanwhile, others have managed to remain in their communities through enormous sacrifice and willpower.