This Act regulates the rights and obligations regarding rural real estates in order to implement the Agricultural Reform and to promote the Agricultural Policy. It is divided into 4 Parts composed of various Chapters.Part 1 is divided as follows: Principles and definitions (chap. I), defining types of agricultural land, associations, companies, cooperatives, etc.; Agreements (chap. II), laying down agreements between the agricultural Federal agents and the Brazilian Institute for Agricultural Reform which shall represent the central Government; Chapter III concerns (a) Public (sect. I), and (b) Private lands (sect. II).Part 2 deals with the Agricultural Reform and with promoting the rational use of rural lands, specifying the requirements necessary to obtain the concession of such lands (it also lists expropriation procedures, entitlements and compensation criteria). Part 2 deals further with: Distribution of lands (chap. II); Financing of the Agricultural Reform (chap. III), which lists the requirements for obtaining subsidies from the Financial Fund; Execution and adminstration of agricultural Reform (chap. IV), specifying regional and national plans, competent authorities, cadastre procedures, etc.Part 3 deals with the promotion of the rural development policy and prescribes use, lease, or temporary concession of rural lands as well as fees to be paid. Chapters II and III establish the procedures for the appropriation and exploitation of rural lands, such as: technical assistance, propagative material production, marketing of agricultural products, etc. Chapter IV establishes the requirements to be satisfied for obtaining temporary concession, leasing, sharecropping, etc. of rural lands (including public lands).Part 4 concerns final provisions and the establishment of the Agricultural Special Fund, which shall be managed by the Ministry of Agriculture.
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Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930.