Sudan, oil, and human rights | Land Portal

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Date of publication: 
janvier 2003
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This report examines the human cost of oil, and corporate complicity in the Sudanese government’s human rights abuses. It finds that oil is an important obstacle to lasting peace in Sudan, and oil revenues have been used by the government to obtain weapons and ammunition that have enabled it to intensify the war and expand oil development. The large-scale exploitation of oil by foreign companies operating in the theatre of war in southern Sudan has increased human rights abuses there and has exacerbated the long-running conflict in Sudan.The report outlines the history of the oil sector in Sudan, summarising the experiences of a number of oil companies, and evidence of large-scale displacement of southern Sudanese as a result of the oil operations, and the intensification of civil war. It also provides a detailed account of the human rights consequences of oil development in Sudan, including population displacement, ethnic manipulation, aerial bombings of civilians, property destruction, waste, and, especially for many Nuer and Dinka, human misery and despair.The report finds that oil company representatives were aware of human rights abuses, and were complicit with the government, and its preference for business as usual over policies aimed at ending abuses. It concludes that the companies investigated are inappropriately operating in Sudan and should suspend their operations unless and until a set of minimum benchmarks are met, including:Displacement:companies: should adequately finance a team, under the supervision of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, to compile an authoritative, credible survey of the identities and numbers of civilians forcibly displaced in or from the relevant oil concessions. Its findings should be made public, and should be in a form usable for determining future compensationthe government: should provide temporary accommodation for those who have been displaced in accordance with the standards utilized by the UNHCR. It should implement a credible and verifiable process to allow those forcibly displaced to return to their homes, with adequate compensation. If return is not possible, it provides them with adequate compensation for an acceptable place of relocation. Compensation should include not only relocation funds, but also compensation for the loss of livelihood, family members, and property, and pain and suffering as a result of government army or militia attack and subsequent displacement. It should permit unimpeded access to the oil-producing areas for Sudanese citizens, international organizations, human rights monitors, journalists, and humanitarian organizationsTransparency:oil companies, consortia members, and subcontractors should disclose whether they have provided cash or in kind equipment or services for military, security, or dual use purposesthe government should adhere in full to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Code of Good Practices for Fiscal Transparency. It should publish the audits that the IMF Auditor General has conducted of Sudapet oil revenue and Sudanese government revenue from 1999 through 2002, and of the year 2003, and future such auditsIn addition, the report lists further recommendations to companies, the government of Sudan, the United States, the Canadian government, the European Union, China and Malaysia, the UN Security Council, the World Bank and the Sudanese rebel forces.

Auteurs et éditeurs


Human Rights Watch is a nonprofit, nongovernmental human rights organization made up of roughly 400 staff members around the globe. Its staff consists of human rights professionals including country experts, lawyers, journalists, and academics of diverse backgrounds and nationalities. Established in 1978, Human Rights Watch is known for its accurate fact-finding, impartial reporting, effective use of media, and targeted advocacy, often in partnership with local human rights groups.

Fournisseur de données

eldis (ELDIS)

Eldis is an online information service providing free access to relevant, up-to-date and diverse research on international development issues. The database includes over 40,000 summaries and provides free links to full-text research and policy documents from over 8,000 publishers. Each document is selected by members of our editorial team.

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