Women's employment in transition countries, notably Central and Eastern Europe has become increasingly informal and flexible. The first growing trend is that women are more involved in cross-border trade, known as 'suitcase' trade, often keeping women away from home for days or months. They buy mainly consumer and household goods usually unavailable in their home countries, to sell to street vendors on their return home. The second growing trend is women's involvement in sub-contracting, particularly work such as hand sewing for the textile and shoe industries.
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Library ResourceRapports et recherchesoctobre, 2002Slovénie, Liechtenstein, Slovaquie, Hongrie, Croatie, Pologne, Allemagne, Australie, République tchèque, Suisse, Europe orientale
Library ResourceRapports et recherchesdécembre, 2001Slovénie, Liechtenstein, Slovaquie, Hongrie, Croatie, Australie, Allemagne, Pologne, Macao, République tchèque, Suisse, Europe orientale, Asie orientale
The topic of gender relations in the context of conflict covers highly sensitive terrain, not only within the war-torn society, but for intervening institutions. Like other international humanitarian agencies, Oxfam Great Britain (GB) has faced difficult questions about whether its presence has sometimes done more harm than good. External agencies also have to ask themselves whether their interventions impact negatively on women and gender relations.
Library ResourceRapports et recherchesjanvier, 1997Royaume-Uni, Europe occidentale, Global
This article outlines how citizenship can be used as a political and theoretical tool by combining 'rights' and 'participation'. Participation in social, economic, cultural and political decision-making provides a more dynamic and active form of rights in which people work together to improve their quality of life. This must reflect the fact that certain types of participation such as 'informal' and/or local political participation are often those in which women take the lead, providing them with a sense of personal power.
Library ResourceRessources et Outils d'entraînementDocuments de politique et mémoiresjanvier, 2004Slovénie, Liechtenstein, Bangladesh, Slovaquie, El Salvador, Croatie, Chili, Zimbabwe, Allemagne, Suisse, Hongrie, Australie, République-Unie de Tanzanie, Pologne, Inde, Brésil, République tchèque, Europe orientale, Global, Amérique centrale, Afrique orientale, Amérique du Sud, Afrique australe, Asie orientale, Caraïbes, Asie méridionale, Asie central
Citizenship is an abstract concept and therefore great care must be taken in explaining what it means in practice and what can effectively be done in the context of development interventions and policy. Development projects which enhance the ability of marginalised groups to access and influence decision-making bodies are implicitly if not explicitly working with concepts of citizenship. Citizenship is about concrete institutions, policy and structures and the ways in which people can shape them using ideas of rights and participation.
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