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Showing items 1 through 9 of 87.
  1. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2004
    Ouganda, Afrique orientale

    A Case Study of Semi-Formal Financial Institutions in Tanzania Background In Tanzania, as in other parts of Africa, lack of credit severely constrains sustainable agricultural development. Deficient or inappropriate collateral, credit rationing, lender preferences for high-income customers borrowing large amounts, and bureaucratic procedures in the formal financial sector are often identified as key factors contributing to low access to credit among most rural dwellers.

  2. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2004

    This brief considers the benefits and costs of alternative tenure and institutional arrangements and the impact of existing legal and policy frameworks on the sustainability and equity of pastoral production systems under three categories of landownership: (1) state ownership; (2) individual ownership; and (3) common property... Achieving efficient, equitable, and sustainable rangeland management depends on the costs and benefits of alternative systems. These costs and benefits, in turn, depend on agroecological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics.

  3. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2005

    "Policies built on presumptions of separateness or on traditional notions of urban and rural livelihoods diminish the possibilities for economic growth and poverty reduction. More effective policies will take the diversity of livelihoods along the continuum into account and also appreciate the differences among urban and rural areas and the links between them. Focusing on the connections between urban and rural areas can help to reframe our understanding of development in these areas.

  4. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2005

    Recent research provides insights into how rural conditions and livelihood strategies are changing, often in response to ongoing processes of economic transformation and urbanization. The research highlights the importance of close connections with urban areas and suggests how policies and programs can support the positive dynamics of change.

  5. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2005

    The topic of family farms has been gaining prominence in the academic, policy, and donor communities in recent years. Small farms dominate the agricultural landscape in the developing world, providing the largest source of employment and income to the rural poor, yet smallholders remain highly susceptible to poverty and hunger. With the advance of globalization and greater integration of agricultural markets, the need for increases in agricultural productivity for family farms is particularly pressing.

  6. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2004

    Governments are now shifting their role from direct management of irrigation systems to regulation of the water sector, provision of support services to water user associations, and capacity building among water user associations and irrigation service providers.... International experience suggests that successful irrigation sector reform programs establish both a policy working group and a national secretariat that help to guide and coordinate the planning and implementation of the reform process.

  7. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2004
    Éthiopie, Afrique orientale

    This paper contributes to the economic analysis of marriage and the family by examining and analyzing the relative importance of potential determinants of assets brought to marriages in rural Ethiopia. One potential determinant is assortative matching, whereby the rich marry the rich and the poor marry the poor, generating a positive correlation between assets brought to marriage by both spouses. Another determinant explored is compensating parental transfers at marriage, whereby parents reduce assets transferred to their marrying children if their spouses bring more.

  8. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2004

    With urban dwellers purchasing 80 percent or more of their food, understanding urban employment is critical to designing policies and programs to address urban hunger and poverty. Reviewing the literature, but also using data from household surveys conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and others in five countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa, this paper profiles urban employment in developing-country cities.

  9. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 2005
    Bangladesh, Asie méridionale, Éthiopie, Indonésie, Kenya, Pérou

    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two.

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