Law Number 5 of 1960 concerning Basic Regulations on Agrarian Principles is widely praised as the great work of the Indonesian nation which is revolutionary, responsive and combines the undeniable combination of individualism and communalism. However, the achievement of these laws is not achieved and spending is more likely to fail due to normative and ideological reasons. This paper tries to bring the study of the law to a more empirical direction by using theories of public policy implementation. This qualitative research method focuses on executive policy, bureaucrats' actions and the interactions that surround them. The study found that the executive policy with the issuance of Presidential Regulation Number 86 of 2018 was precisely not in line with several provisions of Law Number 5 of 1960. The presidential regulation has a paradox, wants to accommodate many variables but is confused about the main purpose of agrarian reform. The implementation of the law requires the existence of a dominant actor, but the actions of the street level bureaucrats have long reduced the purpose of the law to a mere act of legalization of accounting transactions for land that are running according to market mechanisms. Now, the increasing number of Indonesians living in urban areas makes the issue of land more complex, related to land use change and various challenges of sustainable development. The theory of agricultural involution becomes less relevant. A more systematic approach with more sophisticated tools, such as the Land Administration System, is needed to answer these challenges.
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