Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures.
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture.
This is Hong Kong's special administrative government.
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front.
"The Congressional-Executive Commission on China was created by Congress in October 2000 with the legislative mandate to monitor human rights and the development of the rule of law in China, and to submit an annual report to the President and the Congress. The Commission consists of nine Senators, nine Members of the House of Representatives, and five senior Administration officials appointed by the President."
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.
This is the overarching classification for any Cambodian government entity.
Land Core Group is a Myanmar NGO based in Yangon that works to raise awareness of land issues, and promote policy reform to support small scale farmers and forest dependent peoples throughout Myanmar. Our project activities are as follows
- Conduct research on various aspects of land issues
- Land Rights and Land Law TOT and grassroots trainings
- Advocacy to promote stronger land tenure in policy and law
- Coordination and networking through the broader LCG network
ALRD envisions a Bangladesh where upholding the rights of the citizen is the cornerstone of the State and where the State is pro-actively pursuing the promotion and strengthening of the rights of poor and the marginalized, including the most vulnerable of the society; landless peasants, indigenous peoples, women and religious and other minority communities. ALRD further aspires for a Bangladesh that adopts secularism as key guiding principle and gender equity and social justice are considered as key objectives of all its undertakings.
"To be a model legislature for democracy and good governance"
“Committed to effectively and efficiently carrying out its legislative, oversight, representative and budgetary functions”.
Accessibility – The MPs should enhance their interaction with the public both within and outside the Parliament precincts.
Effectiveness – MPs should perform their duties diligently.
Efficiency – MPs should discharge their duties in a timely and cost-effective manner.
The Government of the Republic of Rwanda.