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Housing Matters

April, 2014

Housing matters to the livability of
cities and to the productivity of their economies. The
failure of cities to accommodate the housing needs of
growing urban populations can be seen in the proliferation
of poorly serviced, high-density informal settlements. Such
settlements are not new in the history of rapidly growing
cities, their persistence results as much from policies as
from economics and demographic transition. Slums have

Urbanization as Opportunity

April, 2014

Urbanization deserves urgent attention
from policy makers, academics, entrepreneurs, and social
reformers of all stripes. Nothing else will create as many
opportunities for social and economic progress. The
urbanization project began roughly 1,000 years after the
transition from the Pleistocene to the milder and more
stable Holocene interglacial. In 2010, the urban population
in developing countries stood at 2.5 billion. The developing

The Great Migration : Urban Aspirations

April, 2014

The great 21st-century migration into
cities will present both a great challenge for humanity and
a significant opportunity for global economic growth. This
paper describes the diverse patterns that define this
metropolitan migration. It then lays out a framework for
understanding the costs and benefits of new arrivals through
migration's externalities and the challenges and policy
tradeoffs that confront city stakeholders. The paper

The Urban Imperative : Toward Shared Prosperity

April, 2014

Urbanization is undoubtedly a key driver
of development - cities provide the national platform for
prosperity, job creation, and poverty reduction. But
urbanization also poses enormous challenges that one is
familiar with: congestion, air pollution, social divisions,
crime, the breakdown of public services and infrastructure,
and the slums that one billion urban resident's call
home. Urbanization is perhaps the single most important

Housing and Urbanization in Africa : Unleashing a Formal Market Process

April, 2014

The accumulation of decent housing
matters both because of the difference it makes to living
standards and because of its centrality to economic
development. The consequences for living standards are
far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility,
decent housing improves health and enables children to do
homework. It frees up women's time and enables them to
participate in the labor market. More subtly, a home and its

Indonesia : Evaluation of the Urban Community Driven Development Program, Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Perkotaan

April, 2014

Indonesia's Program Nasional
Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) is the largest Community
Driven Development (CDD) program in the world covering all
urban wards (PNPM-Urban) and rural villages (PNPM-Rural) in
Indonesia. This policy note summarizes a comprehensive
process evaluation of the PNPM-Urban program which has been
carried by the Research and Development (RAND) corporation
in collaboration with survey meter, as well as a rapid

Using Contingent Valuation in the Design of Payments for Environmental Services Mechanisms : A Review and Assessment

April, 2014

As the use of payments for environmental
services (PES) programs for conservation has grown in
developing countries, the use of stated preference methods,
particularly contingent valuation (CV) surveys, to estimate
the maximum amount that users of environmental services
(buyers) would be willing to pay has also increased. This
paper reviews 25 CV studies conducted in the context of PES
programs (CV-PES) and assesses their quality and usefulness

Mapping Environmental Services in Highland Guatemala

April, 2014

This paper uses data from Guatemala to
map areas that are important for the provision of indirect
ecosystem services, services whose benefits are enjoyed at
some distance from the ecosystem that provides them, such as
watershed services (enjoyed downstream) or biodiversity
conservation (enjoyed globally). These services are usually
externalities from the perspective of land users, and so
tend to be under-provided. Mapping the areas that supply

Meeting the Energy Needs of the Urban Poor : Lessons from Electrification Practitioners

April, 2014

The present report was prepared on the
basis of the findings of an international workshop held from
September 12-14, 2005, in Salvador da Bahia, and was
attended by delegations of three to five practitioners from
12 cities in Latin America, Africa and Asia. It had two main
objectives: (a) to share experiences on innovative solutions
to provide electricity services in poor peri-urban and urban
areas; and (b) to develop a body of knowledge to be

Memo to the Mayor : Improving Access to Urban Land for All Residents - Fulfilling the Promise

March, 2014

As the world is urbanizing, many cities
are grappling with a population that is growing rapidly,
thereby increasing demand for land and housing. This
pressure on land and housing markets often is exacerbated by
inappropriate or inadequate policies. The result is a supply
of well-located land and housing that falls well short of
demand and the proliferation of poorly serviced informal
settlements, many of which are located far from jobs, city

Energy Access and Productive Uses for the Urban Poor : Final Report on Ghana Scoping Study

March, 2014

The aim of the scoping study was to gain
an understanding of the productive activities slum dwellers
engage in that rely on energy services and the potentials
and challenges of slums in Ghana regarding access to modern
energy services and income generation from productive
activities. The objective of the ESMED-EAfUP (Energy Sector
Management Assistance Program - ESMAP/SME Development -
Energy Access for the Urban Poor) programme is 'to

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

Reports & Research
March, 2014

The case studies documented in this
report aim to inform the energy access community (including
practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end
users) about best practices of successful energy access
initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies
focusing on electrification and household energy were
selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all
countries that have had varying success in providing access