The ‘Price Penalty’ exists where a poor person pays an above-average price per unit of the facility, product, or service. The ‘Quality Penalty’ refers to the provision of a facility, product, or service of low quality, which is still offered at a price similar to that of higher-quality.
The promulgation of the Kenyan Constitution 2010 brought into place concerns about the urgency for land reform. Land reforms hold the key to solving some of Kenya’s greatest challenges such as landlessness, community cohesion, food security and sustainable development.
Land tenure is one of the great challenges Habitat for Humanity faces in helping families access decent housing. Countless families around the world lack rights to the land on which they live. Just imagine the stress of knowing that any day you might be forced to move because someone else claims ownership of the place you call home.
Providing formal titles to residents in densely populated informal settlements without fuelling conflict or encouraging gentrification presents several challenges. It has been argued that, in some contexts, forms of collective tenure such as a Community Land Trust may help to overcome some of these problems.
Evidence from the first Nairobi Cross-sectional Slum Survey (NCSS) conducted in the city by the African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) in 2000 revealed that slum residents have the worst health outcomes of any group in Kenya (including rural residents).
Flexibility in dwelling units allows for easy and economical physical change and adaptation of spaces for the changing circumstances and needs of the dwellers over the life of the dwelling. However, the knowledge on how dwelling units in multi-family housing respond physically and programmatically to the changing spatial needs of dwellers is still limited.
IDMC's report explores the challenges in providing sustainable housing assistance to informal urban settlers displaced by disasters. It looks at nine case studies from Asia, America and Europe.
The urban population in Ethiopia is increasing rapidly. If managed proactively, urban population growth presents a huge opportunity to shift the structure and location of economic activity from rural agriculture to the larger and more diversified urban industrial and service sectors.
The first paper of this section
(Durand-Laserve) documents how increasing pressures on urban
land and the 'commodification' of shelter and
settlement has increased 'market evictions' of
families holding intermediate tide to property, although