The Fertile Crescent (FC) is a high biodiversity region where most temperate-zone agricultural species originated and were first domesticated. A favourable environment, a special plant community and an adaptive population combined to initiate the transition from a hunter-gatherer economy to one based on agriculture and food production in the Fertile Crescent.
This paper analyzes whether national laws acknowledge indigenous peoples and other rural communities in 100 countries as owners of waters that arise within their lands. Results derive from information collected by LandMark to score the legal status of community land tenure. Findings are positive; half of all countries recognize communities as lawful possessors of water on their lands.
REDD+ is an important instrument for many developing countries in the tropics to fulfill their commitments under the Paris Agreement. Accordingly, various countries have considered it in their current (Intended) Nationally Determined Contributions as to shape the future pathway for addressing the 2.0°C goal.
Legally recognized and secure land and resource rights are fundamental to the advancement of global peace, prosperity, and sustainability. From the development of human cultures to the realization of democracy itself, tenure security underpins the very fabric of human society and our relationship to the natural environment.
Heterotrophic respiration is a major component of the soil C balance however we critically lack understanding of its variation upon conversion of peat swamp forests in tropical areas. Our research focused on a primary peat swamp forest and two oil palm plantations aged 1 (OP2012) and 6 years (OP2007).