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January 2023
Spain
France
Portugal

Are “informal real estate markets” really markets? Alternatively, are “informal property rights” tradable? A few years ago, just the mention of these concepts in a title would render it a misnomer. The aim of this paper is to explore the controversies in literature around the use of the concept “informal real estate markets”.

January 2023
France

Global seed transfers through trade, and collection and distribution of genetic resources by
genebanks are important pathways for the transboundary spread of seed-borne pests,
especially viruses that the insect vectors can further transmit upon introduction. Various
phytosanitary procedures, including the IPPC International Standard Phytosanitary

January 2023
France

Recent years have witnessed an increasing global concern about the loss of plant genetic
resources, as a result of conflicts, epidemics, earthquakes, etc., which led to disrupting
access to some germplasm and undermining social protection systems, and thus an increase
in global awareness to preserve germplasm for their current and future use. This led

January 2023
France

Wheat is one of the most important crops which contributes toward global food security and
represents a main source of food and income for millions of smallholder farmers worldwide.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight wheat
disease which can cause up to 50% yield loss or more depending on the time of infection

January 2023
Ethiopia
France
United States of America

Prolonged communal resource conflicts have undermined development and exacerbated poverty in North Wollo Amhara and neighboring Afar communities in Ethiopia for over two decades. Finding a permanent solution appears to elude all stakeholders mainly because of the inadequate understand of the underlying and proximate causes of these communal resource conflicts.

January 2023
France

Germplasm seed exchange from CGIAR genebanks and breeding is important to global
agricultural research and development programs. Seed as a pathway for pest spread is an
inherent risk for international seed exchanges. Phytosanitary controls have been established
in accordance with the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) to protect global

January 2023
France

African cities are characterized by urbanization, social and economic problems that very often favor crises in the development of their spaces. The city of Bouake, in the center of Côte d'Ivoire, has been experiencing urban sprawl since 1980. This urban sprawl is the result of shortcomings in urban land governance in Côte d'Ivoire following several land reforms.

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