Uganda - Context and Land Governance | Land Portal
uganda agriculture

Uganda is landlocked country located in East Africa with an area of 236,040 square kilometers (146,675 square miles) and a total land boundary of 2,698 kilometers (1,676 miles). It is a natural resource dependent country, and agriculture is dominated by small-holder farmers. Therefore, land is an essential asset for the population and national development. Consequently, government has turned its attention to law and policy reforms that address land-governance challenges, some of which emerge from historical injustices and the colonial legacy.

Post-colonial attempts to address colonial land injustices were futile in several respects. A Land Acquisition Act was passed in 1965, but is now widely considered among courts and others to be inconsistent with the 1995 Constitution. Post-1998 land reforms have not solved the problem of absentee landlords in the lost counties: conflicts between title-holding landlords and bon fide occupants are pervasive. Recent developments have added to the complexity of managing customary lands despite attempts to register such lands and issue Certificates of Customary Ownership (CCOs).

Most political solutions to address land issues, such as legal dualism in the property system, multiplicity of tenure regimes, and overlapping rights and interests in land, have been insufficient [1]. In Uganda, there are still many evictions, arbitrary land dispossessions, disputes and conflicts across national boundaries, as well as land-related disputes at the household level. These tensions have pervaded ethnic groups and inspired overwhelming uncertainties in land rights. Many land governance challenges have resulted in tenure insecurity. Some communities have even lost their ancestral land rights to infrastructural projects, large scale agricultural investments, and wildlife conservation. 

The majority of Ugandans depend almost exclusively on agriculture for their livelihood and food security [23]. Thus, land remains a vital resource, making concerns about land governance a significant political question. There has been a comparatively increasing land rush involving foreign and national companies, powerful individuals, and the state. In 2012, seven large-scale land acquisition deals were officially recorded which by 2016 had risen to twenty-two [24]. The government has yet to convincingly ensure that investors observe acceptable rules of the game during land acquisition and compensation. Uganda is on the threshold of national land crisis. What is required now is an honest policy dialogue on land governance in order to guide acquisition processes, considering the inherent gaps in land governance frameworks, overlapping claims, abuses and lapses manifested during the execution of many land deals.

In contemporary Uganda, the rapid population growth rate, coupled with steady economic growth over the last two decades, has increased demand for land and ignited the debate around land governance [2]. Land acquisition for development projects by governments, private investors and land speculators has been a critical source of tensions and conflicts in many parts of the country. Uganda has also expanded the development of petroleum and minerals sectors, all of which necessitate land acquisitions for infrastructure and industry installations. Land evictions, violent land conflicts, and dispossessions of marginalised groups and communities are common.

 

The VGGT in Uganda

Uganda is part of the United Nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS) and as such has endorsed the VGGT on 11 May 2012. The CFS at its 38th (Special Session) on 11 May 2012, among other points: i) endorsed the VGGT; ii) noted that, according to their title  the VGGT are voluntary and not legally binding; iii) and encouraged all stakeholders to promote, make use of and support the implementation of the VGGT when formulating relevant strategies, policies and programmes. (See FAO Council Report of the 38th (Special) Session of the Committee on World Food Security (11 May 2012), Rome, 11-15 June 2012).

Uganda has implemented a series of national multi-stakeholder workshops and capacity development initiatives to support the implementation of the VGGT in the country. In addition, a pilot project for documenting and certifying customary rights, which is now informing the roll-out of a follow-up project financed by the UN Capital Development Fund. In addition, 56 Forest Management Plans were validated by communities/private forest holders and district authorities, and approved by district councils. Read more.

 
 
Policy, legal and organizational frameworks

The 1995 Constitution of Uganda (Art. 237) vested land in the citizens in accordance with four land tenure systems: Customary, Leasehold, Freehold and Mailo. The Constitution paved way for the establishment of such institutional structures as District Land Boards (DLBs), Uganda Land Commission (ULC) and Land Tribunals (LTs). The Constitution also provides protection from deprivation of property in instances of compulsory acquisition (Art. 26). The Constitution also reaffirmed the authority of the state to acquire lands from individual owners to serve the public interest, make laws regulating land use, and enjoined Parliament to enact a specific law to regulate the relationships between occupiers and users of land held under the tenure regimes to ensure security of occupancy and to provide for the acquisition of registrable interests in land.

The 1998 Land Act (with accompanying Amendment Acts 2004 and 2010) and Land Regulations of 2004 clarify the various categories of tenure created by the Constitution. The Act sets out the powers, procedures and functions of DLBs, ALCs, and tribunals, establishes Communal Land Associations (CLAs) to manage and protect group interests in communal land and guaranteed security of occupancy on registered land to lawful and bona fide occupants.

The Land (amendment) Act of 2004 was enacted to streamline the structures of the land administration system, clarify jurisdiction of Local Council Courts, and provide for security of occupancy for spouses on family land. The 2004 Amendment to the Land Act attempted further to regulate the relationship between tenants on registered land and landowners by clarifying  ground rent. The Land (amendment) Act of 2010 was passed to rectify weaknesses in the original Land Act by criminalizing illegal evictions of bona fide and lawful occupants, devising a workable relationship between tenants on registered land and the landowners– the violation of which is punishable by 7 years’ imprisonment [3].

The 1965 Land Acquisition Act makes provisions for compulsory acquisition of land for public purposes. There is no provision for compulsory acquisition of land by individuals or corporate bodies in the name of public interest. In addition, the Act provides an operational procedure of compulsory land acquisition, including declarations of acquisition to the proprietor and disclosures of assessment and compensation. The Act is an older piece of legislation and provisions are often challenged [4] in courts of laws as inconsistent with the Constitution.

A number of cross-cutting issues interact with practices, systems, institutions, communities and individuals during land governance. Many of these issues do not directly relate to land but present challenges for land governance. Such issues include: ethnicity, gender, youth participation, climate change and environmental protection, among others.

Relevant laws:

• The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995 (as amended)

• The Land Act, Cap 227, 1998 (as amended)

• The Land Acquisition Act, Cap 226, 1965

• Registration of Titles Act, Cap 230, 1924

• Uganda National Land Policy, 2013

• Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Act, No. 3 of 2013

• National Physical Planning Standards and Guidelines, 2011

• Physical Planning Act, No. 8 of 2010

• National Policy for Older Persons (link is external), 2009

National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda, 2008

• Uganda National Roads Authority Act(link is external), 2006

• Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines for the Energy Sector, 2004

• Local Government Act, Cap 243, 1997 (and as amended in 1997, 2001 and 2003)

• The National Forestry and Tree Planting Act, No. 8 of 2003

• Access to Roads Act, Cap 350, 1969

• The Roads Act, Cap 358, 1964

• Survey Act Cap 232, 1939 (as amended)

• Illiterate Protection Act, Cap 78, 1918

Transparency

The following transparency-related scores are listed for Uganda in the Land Governance Assessment Framework carried out by the World Bank in 2016.

 

Transparency of Land Use Restrictions

  • Process of urban expansion/infrastructure development process is transparent and respects existing rights: Weak Practice.

  • Changes in urban land use plans are based on a clear public process and input by all stakeholders: Good Practice.

  • Approved requests for change in urban land use are swiftly followed by development on these parcels of land: Very Weak Practice.

 

Transparency and Fairness of Acquisition Procedures

  • Compensation is provided for the acquisition of all rights regardless of their recording status: Weak Practice.

  • Land use change resulting in selective loss of rights there is compensated for: Very Weak Practice.

  • Acquired owners are compensated promptly: Weak Practice.

  • There are independent and accessible avenues for appeal against acquisition: Very Weak Practice.

  • Timely decisions are made regarding complaints about acquisition: Good Practice.

 

Transparency of Valuations

  • There is a clear process of property valuation: Good Practice.

  • Valuation rolls are publicly accessible: Good Practice.

 

Read the full LGAF report: http://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/land-governance-assessment-framework#2



Browse Transparency International data from the Global Corruption Barometer to find out more about corruption in the land sector in Uganda.

 

Gender and land

The Land (amendment) Act of 2004 was enacted to streamline the structures of the land administration system, clarify jurisdiction of Local Council Courts, and provide for security of occupancy for spouses on family land.

The key challenge of land governance today lies in the fluidity of transactions involving communally-owned resources where rights and interests of the defenceless persons are overlooked by powerful individuals, groups, and organizations. Large-scale acquisitions seem to be unstoppable since they usually involve global pressure, use of force, and state-capital collusion. This complicates the terrain for women, youth, children, and the disabled, sick, elderly. This worsens where displacements, evictions, or even compensations, are based on collectives like families and communities. Most of these people are excluded from negotiation and compensation processes. The question of their participation remains unanswered. Many women live under undocumented marital unions with barely written proof of owning land. This reduces their bargaining power in cases of resettlement and related compensations [22]. The concerns of managing the environment, climate change responses and biodiversity conservation have also become more pronounced as investments on land affect productivity, food security, or investment in surplus production for income generation and export earnings.

Browse the FAO gender and land rights database for more information on gender and land in Uganda.

 
Legal recognition and allocation of tenure rights

Uganda’s Constitution and the Land Act provide that land may be held under four tenure categories: Customary, Leasehold, Freehold, Mailo [6].

Customary land tenure has a complex system of land relations in which the status of possession of land is not always easily defined due to variation in practice from community to community [7] and to the absence of legal documentation. The underlying commonality in all customary holdings is that rights are derived by reason of membership in a community and retained as a result of performance of reciprocal obligations in that community. Customary rights are also transferable through bequeathal and/or inheritance.

Leasehold tenure is created either by contract or by operation of the law. It is a form of ownership in which the landlord of lessor grants the tenant or lessee exclusive possession of the land, usually for a period defined, with specific conditions and in return for rent payments. The tenant has security of tenure and a proprietary interest in the land.

Freehold tenure originated in the colonial period and is feudal in nature. Freehold ownership involves the holding of registered land in perpetuity. It connotes the largest quantum of land rights which the sovereign can grant to an individual, confers unlimited right of use, abuse and disposition by the title-holder [8]. Under Article 26 of Uganda’s Constitution, 1995, leasehold can be acquired as long as titleholders are granted adequate and timely compensation.

The Mailo land tenure system is a feudal ownership regime introduced by the British in 1900 under the Buganda Agreement. The Mailo system derives its legality from the Constitution. Both the Constitution and the Land (Amendment) Act 2010 grant protection to a bonafide and lawful occupant and his/her successor on mailo, leasehold and freehold lands, against arbitrary eviction if prescribed nominal ground rent is paid [9]. Mailo tenure characteristics include the following: land may be held in perpetuity; ownership of land may be separated from the ownership of developments made on the land by lawful, bonafide occupants; and the holders of the land may exercise all powers of ownership, subject to the rights of those persons occupying the land at the time of the creation of the mailo title. In practice, the Mailo system creates conflicting interests and overlapping rights to the same piece of land [10].

 

Investment

The majority of Ugandans depend almost exclusively on agriculture for their livelihood and food security [23]. Thus, land remains a vital resource, making concerns about land governance a significant political question. There has been a comparatively increasing land rush involving foreign and national companies, powerful individuals, and the state. In 2012, seven large-scale land acquisition deals were officially recorded which by 2016 had risen to twenty-two [24]. The government has yet to convincingly ensure that investors observe acceptable rules of the game during land acquisition and compensation. Uganda is on the threshold of national land crisis. What is required now is an honest policy dialogue on land governance in order to guide acquisition processes, considering the inherent gaps in land governance frameworks, overlapping claims, abuses and lapses manifested during the execution of many land deals.

Uganda has endeavoured to attract private investment, both domestic and foreign, in productive sectors of the economy by creating an enabling investment climate and facilitating investors to access land. The key sectors are agriculture, livestock, energy, petroleum, minerals, water, wildlife, and forestry. Large chunks of land have been acquired for palm plantations, sugarcane growing, and forestry, tea growing and ranching.  The agricultural sector is still dominated by small holder farmers who face immeasurable challenges relating to such investment. Pre-existing private interests, mainly land use rights, were not legally recognised at the time of creation of mailo and native freeholds. Besides, population growth over the years has increased the demand for land leading to its fragmentation into economically unviable sub-units in some areas.

There is also increased investment in extractive industries especially petroleum development and mineral exploration. Big blocks of land have been acquired for industrial establishments and infrastructure development. In the Albertine Graben of Uganda, land has been acquired for establishment of an oil refinery and associated facilities, construction of waste management facilities, central processing facilities, roads, and pipelines among other infrastructure. The need for land for several investments has attracted speculative land acquisition in the region which in the majority of the cases has violated community land rights and left some families landless [11].

Many cases of large-scale land acquisitions in Uganda indicate a contest of complex and incomplete land governance [14]. Critical analysis points to fragile a situation: tensions between communities, landowners and government, and land losses with calamitous consequences for the majority poor especially women whose land rights are fluid. Where displacements, evictions, or even compensations, are based on collectives like families and communities it worsens the situation for women. Most of these people are excluded from negotiation and compensation processes. The question of their participation remains unanswered. Many women live under undocumented marital unions with barely written proof of owning land. This reduces their bargaining power in cases of resettlement and related compensations [22]. The concerns of managing the environment, climate change responses and biodiversity conservation have also become more pronounced as investments on land affect productivity, food security, or investment in surplus production for income generation and export earnings. This has led to a proliferation of multifaceted, multi-level, land conflicts [15].

 
Expropriation and compensation

As a direct result of compulsory acquisition of land, people lose their homes, their land and at times their means of livelihood. Compensation is therefore necessary to repay them for these losses and should be based on the principles of equity and equivalence [13]. Land acquisition in Uganda is governed by the Constitution, the Land Acquisition Act, and the Land Act, and Registration of Titles Act. Under Article 273(2)(a), the Constitution empowers the Government to compulsorily acquire land. But this power is subject to Article 26 of the Constitution. Article 26 provides that every person has a right to own property and the right will not be taken away except if the taking of possession is necessary for public use or in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality and public health; and only there is prompt payment of fair and adequate compensation. The Land Act governs valuation and compensation and under section 42 allows government or local government to acquire in accordance with Articles 26 and 237(2) of the Constitution. Under the Act the value of standing crops on the land is determined in accordance with the district compensation rates established by the respective District Land Board. The value for customary land is the open market value of the unimproved land or by use of replacement cost model. A disturbance allowance is also normally paid for loss of access to the source of livelihood.

The Land Acquisition Act regulates compulsory acquisition of land for public purposes. The Act provides for the procedures for compulsory land acquisition. There is no provision for compulsory acquisition of land by individuals or corporate bodies in the name of public interest. The Act provides an operational procedure of compulsory land acquisition, including declarations of acquisition to the proprietor and disclosures of assessment and compensation, providing for notification of the landowners, assessment and valuation for compensation, and management of appeals against compensations. The Act is an older piece of legislation and provisions are often challenged [4] in courts of laws as inconsistent with the Constitution. [12]. It is now widely considered among courts and others that the Land Acquisition Act is inconsistent with the 1995 Constitution.

The Registration of Titles Act Cap 230 regulates the transfer of land and registration of Titles, including land leasing. Section 56 provides that the certificate of title is evidence of ownership. It also requires a seller or leaser of land to be in possession of a certificate of title as conclusive proof of owning any land in question.

Browse the qualitative dataset developed by Tagliarino (2018) to assess how national laws in Uganda measure up against the international standard on expropriation and resettlement as established by VGGT section 16.

 
Resolution of disputes over tenure rights

Land related disputes and conflicts in Uganda are  a common challenge to be addressed. In Uganda, there are still many evictions, arbitrary land dispossessions, disputes and conflicts across national boundaries, as well as land-related disputes at the household level. These tensions have pervaded ethnic groups and inspired overwhelming uncertainties in land rights. Many land governance challenges have resulted in tenure insecurity. Some communities have even lost their ancestral land rights to infrastructural projects, large scale agricultural investments, and wildlife conservation. 

Land conflicts in Uganda are conservatively estimated to affect seven per cent of agricultural landholdings, and entail significant land disputes due to: mismatches between the land policies, legal framework, and implementation processes; increased demand for land for public use, private sector-led developments; and increased speculation for land resources that have become highly-valued in the marketplace [16]. These conflicts widely reflect intra-regional and ethnocentric dimensions, most occurrences taking place in sub-regions like West Nile, Acholi, Lango, Karamoja, Buganda, Teso, Bunyoro, Rwenzori, Ankole, Bukedi and Sebei.

Most cases of the land conflicts arise from misunderstandings over land boundaries, issues relating to trespass, illegal settlement by strangers on communal lands, and are rooted in weak land-governance institutions and implementation [17]. At the individual level, most conflicts arise from disagreements over inheritance in estates of the deceased or between land owners and bona fide occupants. There is now a growing trend of conflict between government or investors and communities. Most of these conflicts negatively impact livelihood and food security because disputed lands are usually abandoned and rendered inaccessible for productive use. A worrying aspect is the increased individualization, leading to a diminished role and authority of traditional or cultural leaders who were custodians entrusted with settlement of disputes and governing communal land [18].

Government’s remedial actions include review and amendment of land-related laws that may be out-dated and in conflict with the Constitution and provisions in various international instruments, as well as measures of enforcement [19] and regulations to enhance land access alongside judicial mechanisms for addressing land disputes. In the recently-constituted “Land Inquiry” the Commission has uncovered several conflicts in their investigation [20]. These actions have triggered legislative reform to clarify the relationship between land ownership and land acquisition for development. The National Land Use Policy, National Land Policy, and the National Land Acquisition, Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy are key responses to reform legislation, land management institutions, guidelines and regulations. In addition, a total of 21 ministry zones have been established with one-stop centres for the extension of land services to local communities. These Zones/Centres are supported by a computerised land registry with an evolving Land Information System (LIS) [21].

Conflict

Post-1998 land reforms have not solved the problem of absentee landlords in the lost counties: conflicts between title-holding landlords and bon fide occupants are pervasive. Recent developments have added to the complexity of managing customary lands despite attempts to register such lands and issue Certificates of Customary Ownership (CCOs).

 
References

[1] The Busuulu and Envujjo Law of 1928 were enacted for Buganda and similar laws in Ankole and Tooro in 1938. The Land Reform Decree of 1975 also introduced anarchy in land management through occupation of people’s land without regard to ownership rights.

[2] Land governance involves establishment of rules, processes, and structures through which decisions are made about access to land and its use, the manner in which they are implemented and enforced, as well as the system that enables competing interests over land to be managed.[1] It is a procedural process that involves, and revolves around, policies by which the institutions are put in place to manage land, property and other land-based natural resources, and address a number of issues related to land access, land rights, land use, and land-based development.

[3] This provision on illegal evictions was tested in the case of Beatrice, Uromcan  Martin, Ausenge Petero, Obita Quinto and  Latim Alex (Applicants) Versus Bansigaraho Robert (Respondent)Revision Application No. HCT-12- CV-CR-017 OF 2014 (Arising out of Civil Suit No. 021/2014) Abwooli  Mukubwa  where court found that the eviction was illegal. However, the respondent has not been formerly charged in any criminal court to date.  Meanwhile the evictees lost their land and are now wallowing in poverty. In practice this provision remains neatly in the statue books without enforcement.

[4] Advocates for Natural Resources Governance and Development, Irumba Asumani and Peter Magelah (Petitioners) Versus Attorney General and Uganda National Roads Authority (Respondents) Constitutional Petition Number 40 of 2013.

[5] Esther Obaikol (2013) Draft Final Report of the Implementation of the Land Governance Assessment Framework in Uganda. The Uganda Land Alliance. p.34; Louis Fortmann & James Riddell, (1985). Trees and Tenure: An Annotated Bibliography.

[6] Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995 Article 237(3) and Land Act 1998, Cap 227 Section 2.

[7] Obaikol. 2013. p.38.

[8] Ibid p.39.

[9] Government of Uganda. 2013. National Land Policy, Chapter 4, p.44. Available at: https://landportal.org/library/resources/landwiserecord1554item2455/ugan...

[10] The definition of rights accorded to bonafide occupants in the law is largely contested by the Landlords.

[11] Max, A. Anyuru., Russell, Rhoads., O, Mugyenyi; Joseph, Ekwenyu., Tom. Balemesa., (2016). Balancing Development and Community Livelihoods: A Framework for Land Acquisition and Resettlement in Uganda: ACODE Policy Research Series, No. 75, 2016. Available at:

[12] Uganda National Land Policy, 2013, sections 4, 5, 6 and 7.

[13] FAO. 2008. Land Tenure Studies Number 10, Compulsory Acquisition of land and Compensation. Available at: https://landportal.org/library/resources/faodocrep1a971667-0066-5e68-9c7....

[14] The Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) is legally empowered to promote investment in Uganda, including by facilitating investor access to land. However, there are no codified rules or regulations governing the UIA’s authority to facilitate investor access to land. The Act does not specify whether the UIA is responsible for helping investors acquire land from private owners or from other government agencies that hold land, such as the ULC or the District Land Boards. Neither does the Act specify how the UIA should interface with the other government institutions that have played roles in recent land acquisitions, including the Ministry of Agriculture and the National Forestry Authority.

[15] Centre for Basic Research. 2016. Large Scale Land Acquisitions and Land Governance in Uganda: Implications for Women’s Land Rights: A Research Brief.. Available at: https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/56331/IDL-5...

[16] Tumushabe, G and Tatwangire, A (2017); Max A. Anyuru, Russell Rhoads, Onesmus Mugyeni, Joseph A. Manoba and Tom Balemesa. (2016). Balancing Development and Community Livelihoods: A Framework for Land Acquisition and Resettlement in Uganda.  Kampala, ACODE Policy Research Series, No. 75. http://www.acode-u.org/Files/Publications/PRS_75.pdf.

[17] Knight, R., J. Adoko, and T. A. Eilu (2013) Protecting Community Lands and Resources: Evidence from Uganda. Uganda: Namati, LEMU and IDLO. Available at: https://namati.org/resources/protecting-community-lands-and-resources-ev...

[18] The collective rights as the most common land governance pattern have been drastically undermined with individual rights taking prominence in the new wave of land acquisition. This has led to more individualised sales of communal land with negative implications for women’s land rights and general livelihood of communities.

[19] The absence of land tribunals and local council courts leaves a very big gap in land governance at the local government level in terms of ensuring transparent, participatory, and accountable land acquisition processes.

[20] Sunday Vision. 2016. How Uganda is Addressing Land Issues in the Country. Availabe at: http://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1420403/uganda-addressing-lan...

[21] The registered titles in Uganda have increased from 478,837 in 2013 to 503,206 in December 2016 and another 1,000,000 titles are expected through systematic demarcation in the eastern, western and southern part of the country. Issuance of the first batch of Certificates of Customary Ownership (CCOs) was also undertaken in Kasese (1,612 Certificates) and Nwoya (349 Certificates) Districts.

[22] Centre for Basic Research. 2016.

[23] Republic of Uganda. 2015. Second National Development Plan (NDPII) 2015/16-2019/20.  Entebbe, Uganda.

[24] Land Matrix Portal. Availabe at: http://www.landmatrix.org/en/get-the-idea/global-map-investments/

 

 

Peer review

Peer reviewed by Dr. Russell Rhoads, Associate Professor in Anthropology at Grand Valley State University.

 

State of land information

For an assessment about the state of land information in Tanzania - how open and accessible land information is - please check the SOLI report for this country published by the Land Portal.

Selected indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Total funding (US $) for programmes still ongoing. Last updated on the 31st of January, 2019.

Measurement unit: 
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing. Last updated on the 31st of January, 2019.

Measurement unit: 
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

The world at a glance

Loading map...

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number

Compare countries

Loading chart...

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number
Loading spider chart
Loading pie chart

Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee), land under trees and shrubs producing flowers (such as roses and jasmine), and n

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.