SDGs: Indicator 2.3.2 | Page 2 | Land Portal

Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status


Last updated on 1 February 2022

This indicator is currently classified as Tier II. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the main Custodian agency for this indicator in cooperation with the World Bank.

Unit of measure: Average annual income of small-scale food producers (in constant PPP 2011 USD) complemented by average income of large-scale food producers (in constant PPP 2011 USD)


Why is this indicator important?

This indicator measures the incomes of small-scale producers as a means of eliminating hunger and achieving other SDGs (e.g., poverty alleviation). Ending hunger requires long-term, sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices. Developing efficient and robust food production programs to the boost agricultural productivity of small-scale producers is essential to maintain food supplies, increase incomes for poor and vulnerable groups, and feed the planet. It also contributes to strengthening rural development.

By tracking the income of small-scale producers by sex, community of reference, and enterprise size, data collected for indicator 2.3.2 enables governments to shape, prioritize, and invest in policies and measures that effectively boost agricultural productivity, drive economic growth, and eliminate hunger in particular for small-scale food producers, including women, Indigenous Peoples, family farmers, and pastoralists.


How is the indicator measured and monitored?

Data and information on income of small-scale producers is limited in many countries, but better accessible compared to the information available for indicator 2.3.1. Similarly, information is often collected at household level instead of food production unit level. The indictor can be disaggregated by sex, type of enterprise, and by community of reference.

According to the metadata brief, sources of information are either agricultural surveys, or agricultural modules in integrated household surveys (e.g., LSMS-ISA) organized by the national statistical agencies, with the necessary support from the World Bank, FAO and other international agencies. FAO has been working on computing the indicator for eight developing countries in Sub-Sahara Africa based on data collected from the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) surveys. Results have not been disseminated yet. In collaboration with IFAD and the World Bank, FAO also promotes the Agricultural and Rural Integrated Surveys project (AGRISurvey) which collects relevant data on an annual basis. 


By Anne Hennings, peer-reviewed by FAO.


Official indicator data

The income from on-farm production activities includes income from crop production, livestock production, fisheries and aquaculture production, and from forestry production. The indicator is computed as annual income.


* Select "year" below to see the most recent data for more countries.

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The data series presented here measures average income of small-scale food producers, PPP (constant 2011 international $).

Measurement unit: 
Constant 2011 international $

Other related indicators on Land Portal

In addition to the official indicator data, the following indicators provide information concerning the importance of agriculture  in a given country or the distribution of land.


Share (%) of Agricultural Value added with respect to the Total Value Added produced in a given country in a given year.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Share (%) of female employees in agriculture with respect to the total of female employment.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

SDG Land Tracker

Goal 2: Zero hunger
Target 2.3: By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

Indicator details

Tier 2

The indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data is not regularly produced by countries.

Custodian agency: 

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development.