In Pakistan, where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation, informal water markets are an increasingly important way to provide small farmers and tenant farmers with access to ground- water. The public canal irrigation system provides water to farmers who own land within designated areas, but it does not provide all farmers with adequate water supplies when they need it.
This paper uses income decomposition techniques to demonstrate the importance of livestock income in improving rural income distribution. It is based on three-year household panel data (1986 to 1989) from rural Pakistan. The paper first decomposes total income among five sources: agricultural, nonfarm, livestock, rental and transfer.
This publication presents guidelines originally published in 1985 as FAO Investment Technical Paper No. 1 and revised in 1995 as Technical Paper No. 7. This 2005 web PDF version generally follows the 1995 print edition, but includes several updated sections. These guidelines have been prepared to help in the design of agricultural investment projects in developing countries.
Why do some people receive higher incomes than others with similar talents and abilities? And why do certain sources of income, such as income from farm labor and income from growing sugarcane, go to different people? What steps can be taken to reduce the wide differences in income earned, so that the number of people living below the poverty line can be reduced?
A food demand system is proposed, based on demand for energy, variety, and tastes of foods. By specifying utility as an explicit function of these characteristics, the entire matrix of demand elasticities can be derived for n foods and one nonfood from prior specification of just four elasticities, while avoiding any assumption of separability between foods.