The strong irrigation tradition has sustained the broad based community community interest in irrigation. The result is a very complex institutional milieu in which a set of formally established irrigation rules and organizations exists side by side with an intricate set of social institutions. The two sets act like a dual system often in conflict with each other.
Extensive grazing is the predominant form of land use on at least a quarter of the world’s land surface, in which livestock are raised on food that comes mainly from rangelands. Extensive grazing differs from crop or forestry production, in which the produce remains in situ whilst growing.
This paper is a preliminary effort to define the extent of irrigation in Pakistan's mountain regions. Attention is given to some changes already begun in this environment through new irrigation development activities. Important knowledge gaps that need to be filled by more systematic and multidisciplinary research are identified.