The net effect of heavy grazing and land degradation on plant diversity and richness is insufficiently understood for incorporation in national biodiversity assessments. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of heavy grazing primarily on richness of vascular plant species across the arid and semi-arid rangeland biomes of South Africa. Major grazing contrasts were systematically identified for sampling in rangelands of Succulent Karoo, Nama-Karoo, Thicket, Grassland, Kalahari dune savanna and Mopane savanna. The related parameters of species diversity, evenness and turnover were also examined and analysed at the whole site level. The study represents a new site-level comparison of earlier individual studies that also necessitated recalculation and standardization of original data, where appropriate. Impacts of heavy grazing on plant species richness were found to vary from negligible or slightly positive to distinctly negative, depending on site. The sharp reductions in richness may have been associated with special secondary conditions that can occur in arid areas. Species diversity did not track species richness well and was often dominated by species evenness patterns. Moderate to substantial turnover of species occurred, even with negligible change in species richness. Species turnover was largely associated with replacement of species, except on one site where turnover was more evenly split between its replacement and nestedness components. Heavy grazing altered species composition on all study sites, usually with reduced grazing quality and favouring annual plants. Surprisingly few of the replacement species on most of the study areas were alien or exotic. Remarkably, the magnitude of change in species richness across the limited rainfall gradient of the study often greatly exceeded changes associated with the heavy grazing levels at each site. Use of the significant non-linear relationship found between loss of plant canopy cover through grazing and the relative decline in species richness needs further exploration.
Authors and Publishers
Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals.
All knowledge begins as uncommon—unrecognized, undervalued, and sometimes unaccepted. But with the right perspective, the uncommon can become the exceptional.