Can Africa Serve Europe with Hydrogen Energy from Its Renewables?—Assessing the Economics of Shipping Hydrogen and Hydrogen Carriers to Europe from Different Parts of the Continent | Land Portal

Resource information

Date of publication: 
January 2023
Resource Language: 
ISBN / Resource ID: 
LP-midp003600
Copyright details: 
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article

There exists no single optimal way for transporting hydrogen and other hydrogen carriers from one port to the other globally. Its delivery depends on several factors such as the quantity, distance, economics, and the availability of the required infrastructure for its transportation. Europe has a strategy to invest in the production of green hydrogen in Africa to meet its needs. This study assessed the economic viability of shipping liquefied hydrogen (LH2) and hydrogen carriers to Germany from six African countries that have been identified as countries with great potential in the production of hydrogen. The results obtained suggest that the shipping of LH2 to Europe (Germany) will cost between 0.47 and 1.55 USD/kg H2 depending on the distance of travel for the ship. Similarly, the transportation of hydrogen carriers could range from 0.19 to 0.55 USD/kg H2 for ammonia, 0.25 to 0.77 USD/kg H2 for LNG, 0.24 to 0.73 USD/kg H2 for methanol, and 0.43 to 1.28 USD/kg H2 for liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs). Ammonia was found to be the ideal hydrogen carrier since it recorded the least transportation cost. A sensitivity analysis conducted indicates that an increase in the economic life by 5 years could averagely decrease the cost of LNG by some 13.9%, NH3 by 13.2%, methanol by 7.9%, LOHC by 8.03%, and LH2 by 12.41% under a constant distance of 6470 nautical miles. The study concludes with a suggestion that if both foreign and local participation in the development of the hydrogen market is increased in Africa, the continent could supply LH2 and other hydrogen carriers to Europe at a cheaper price using clean fuel.

Authors and Publishers

Author(s), editor(s), contributor(s): 

Agyekum, Ephraim B.Ampah, Jeffrey D.Uhunamure, Solomon E.Shale, KaraboOnyenegecha, Ifeoma P.Velkin, Vladimir I.

Corporate Author(s): 
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    MDPI AG, a publisher of open-access scientific journals, was spun off from the Molecular Diversity Preservation International organization. It was formally registered by Shu-Kun Lin and Dietrich Rordorf in May 2010 in Basel, Switzerland, and maintains editorial offices in China, Spain and Serbia. MDPI relies primarily on article processing charges to cover the costs of editorial quality control and production of articles. Over 280 universities and institutes have joined the MDPI Institutional Open Access Program; authors from these organizations pay reduced article processing charges.