Explore land rights and governance issues using the filters below, and browse our collection of 60+ country portfolios developed in collaboration with local researchers from around the world.
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With its 1,267,000 km², Niger is the largest country in West Africa. However, since two-thirds of its territory is located in the Sahara desert, agriculture is only possible in a strip corresponding to the southern third of the country. Desertification is a major issue in Niger, which increases the pressure on land. The degradation of natural resources weakens the pastoral system and hinders the practice of agriculture. Faced with these challenges, the State and citizens of Niger are trying to regreen the country through reforestation and assisted natural regeneration. The country also started in 2013 to review its land regulations.
Land has played a critical role in Tanzania’s historic trajectory. Current land tenure frameworks, resource governance, and related conflicts are closely intertwined with current neoliberal policies and land accumulation by foreign companies and domestic elites as well as dynamics of the (pre-)colonial period.
In Côte d'Ivoire, land issues are crucial for agricultural development, social peace and the legitimacy of political authorities. From 1960 to 1980, the country experienced strong economic growth due to the vigour of the agricultural sector, in particular cash crops for export. Encouraged by the policies of President Félix Houphouët-Boigny (in power from 1960 to 1993), several migrants, both Ivorians and foreigners, settled in the south of the country to practice agriculture. The "Ivorian miracle" ran out of steam in the 1980s. From 1999 to 2011, Côte d'Ivoire went through a series of political crises and ethnic violence related to access to land.
Mali is a landlocked country in the heart of the Sahel that faces land related tensions, food insecurity and severe security challenges despite the 2015 peace agreement. Agriculture accounts for 39% of the national GDP and Mali’s main exports rely on gold, cotton, and livestock.
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