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Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Russia is a semi-presidential federation.

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Library Resource
Legislation
Russia, Eastern Europe, Europe

The President, for the purpose of promoting effectual land tenure, decrees that the priorities of purchase of the plots of land (or the shares of them), on which are situated previously privatized edifices, have physical and juridical persons that own these edifices. The Decree establishes that the property put on sale regards plots of land (or the shares of them) that had been previously conceded to a tenant or a leaseholder on condition of permanent (limitless) tenure, lifelong ownership with the right of inheritance or of limited tenure, including rent.

Library Resource
Regulations
Russia, Eastern Europe, Europe

The people's deputies are entitled to verify the results of the application of the Russian land legislation and to make up for the deficiency and drawbacks in the promotion of land reform in accordance with the local executive authorities and the representatives of the local branches of the Federal Committee on Land Reform and Land Resources and of the local prosecutor's office.

Library Resource
Regulations
Russia, Eastern Europe, Europe

This Decree invalidates articles 2-23, 30-32, Part 2 of article 34, Parts 3 and 4 of article 37, articles 39 and 40, Part 2 of article 41, articles 42 and 44, Part 2 of article 47, article 48, point 8 of the first part of article 52, articles 63, 65, 67, 69 and 82, Part 3 of article 83, Part 3 of article 88, articles 97-99, 115-124 of the Land Code of the RSFSR; Law of the RSFSR "On Land Reform" of 1990; articles 5-7, point (b) of the second part of point 1 of article 10 and article 26 of the Law of the RSFSR "On farming" of 1990.This Decree establishes that the authority of the Councils of

Library Resource
Regulations
Russia, Eastern Europe, Europe

This Decree establishes that for the period preceding the adoption of the basic land legislation, physical and juridical persons and public officials are committed to civil liability for the following offences in the field of land administration: for the infringement of legal and administrative procedures in urban construction documentation that caused land squatting; for the infringement in the use of land destined for environmental protection, national parks and recreational purpose; for irrational use of agricultural land and lack of protective measures for soil conservation; for dodging

Library Resource
Regulations
Russia, Eastern Europe, Europe

The Government decrees to validate the Agreement between the Russian Federation and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development concerning the land based credit for putting into effect land reform that was signed in Washington on 22 June 1994. The sum of the land based credit is 80 million US dollars. This Decree establishes that the restitution of the credit must be financed by the introduction of the special land tax.

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