Explore land rights and governance issues using the filters below, and browse our collection of 60+ country portfolios developed in collaboration with local partners from around the world.
Inequities in land tenure have existed throughout the history of Colombia. This is primarily due to competing interests between small landholdings (minifundios) and large estates (latifundios); between peasants and landowners.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a long war that has killed 3.5 million people and devastated the country. After the end of the conflict in 1997, the new government began rebuilding administrative systems and set new standards for good governance. Congo’s population is composed of several ethnic groups, most of which are of Bantu origin. More than half of the population is rural, with agriculture accounting for 41% of the total GDP.
The Dominican Republic is a middle-income country with a primarily service-based economy. The country has a high urbanization rate and suffers from land degradation. Poverty is widespread in the country, particularly in those communities located on the border with Haiti.
The problems associated with land tenure in Ecuador are long-standing and have been characterized by the relationship between access, use and ownership of land, and by the problems of peasant and indigenous families and communities. These problems are also characterized by the direct and visible relationship with sectors that own large amounts of land, have access to the country’s political and economic power, and define what is necessary for the countryside, its problems, its agendas and its development policies. This relationship has influenced legislative agenda of recent years, leading to the design of a new land law that reflects the proposals of power groups in government and the current state discourse.
Egypt has a population of about 80 million people who live and work in only 4% of the country, concentrated along the Nile River. Although land is distributed relatively equitably, agricultural land is scarce and the high level of population growth has reduced land per capita. With 57% of the total population living in rural areas and 29% of the total labor force working in the agriculture sector, agriculture accounts for 14% of the country’s total GDP.
El Salvador is a small, densely populated country that experienced a decade of civil war, after which a process of development ensued, including the diversification of exports and increasing access to services such as education and health care.
Located in Eastern Africa, north of Kenya, Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country that is home to nine ethnically based states and two self-governing administrations. The economy is largely based on agriculture, with over 80% of the population engaged in the production of crops and livestock. With a growing population of over 80 million people, Ethiopia is also the most populous landlocked country in the world. On average farm sizes are small, with more than 85% of farming households on less than 2 hectares.
Georgia is a largely mountainous country in which the rural population, 47% of the total, has not benefited from the country’s economic growth. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Georgia’s agricultural productivity has declined, shifting the GDP to a largely service-based economy.
Located in Western Africa, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Agriculture is a major driver of the economy, accounting for one-third of GDP, alongside gold and cocoa. Approximately 68% of Ghana’s land is used for agriculture and 15% is used as permanent natural pastures.
In Guatemala, a history of discrimination and inequality of opportunity led to a 36-year conflict that finally subsided with a Peace Agreement in 1996. Improvements since then have prevented a return to conflict and begun to create the conditions for sustained stability.
Guinea is characterized by high political and economic instability, which is one of the reasons why GDP in the country has been stagnant since 2002, with poverty increasing. Of the total land area, agricultural land comprises 51%, with 86% of the poor population living in rural areas and more than 70% of the population working in the agriculture sector.
Haiti is the poorest country in Latin America and the Caribbean, and is a country highly exposed to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes, which have destroyed the country’s infrastructure.