| Land Portal

Land governance by country

The country pages provide a comprehensive space, where avid learners can come to explore and gain a better understanding of land governance issues in various countries around the world.

Much of the information here below has been developed in collaboration with local partner organizations and contains comprehensive data and information.  

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Agriculture in India

Land is an important source of identity, symbol of social status and foundation for rural power in India, often carrying significant emotional attachment. With a long history, diverse geography and pluralistic culture, land governance has evolved in India through communal, imperial, feudal, colonial and modern systems, gradually moving towards individualization and conclusive titling.

Learn more about the successes and challenges in India. 

Lost forests: an aerial photograph shows land cleared for a palm oil plantation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Photo: Romeo Gacad

Indonesian development policies have for the past several decades focused on rapid economic growth, without a targeted strategy to benefit the least powerful groups, such as landless and land-poor agricultural laborers in the densely populated agricultural districts and the equally poor forest-dwelling communities in the less populated islands.

Learn more about the challenges and successes in Indonesia

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Since its independence in 1960, Ivory Coast experienced a long period of stability and economic growth thanks to the investments in the agricultural sector. However, in 1980 rapid population growth and internal migration from urban to rural areas increased the pressure on the management and distribution of natural resources, which gave rise to a series of conflicts over land. The 1999 Coup d’Etat exacerbated the situation, as conflicts and political instability spread, particularly in relation to the control of land.

Learn more about successes and challenges and find more detailed land governance data in Ivory Coast

pastoralist ethiopia-kenya

Kenya has a land size of 582,646 Square Kilometers, 97.8% comprising of land and 2.2% water surfaces. 20% of the land area is classified as medium to high potential land and 80% as Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL). Land has a central position in Kenya’s social, economic and political history. An estimated 75% of the country’s population depends on land for their livelihoods, making the ownership, management and control of the resource of great importance.

Learn more about successes and challenges and find more detailed land governance data in Kenya.

Liberia agriculture USAID photo

Liberia’s 14-year civil war—fueled in part by conflicts over land and natural resource rights—has had a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of its people. Today, more than a decade into the post-conflict reconstruction period, Liberians are working to rebuild their economy and institute reforms that would promote equitable access to land and resources, secure tenure, investment, and development. Progress, however, has been stymied by a host of challenges— from a lack of infrastructure to the Ebola epidemic in 2014.

Learn more about successes and challenges and find more detailed land governance data in Liberia.

libya agriculture photo by Carsten ten Brink

Libya was governed for 42 years by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi until the revolution of 2011.Since the end of the Gaddafi regime, Libya has experienced an unstable political situation, and the new government has not yet clarified if property rights will be reformed.  The country has a population of 6.2 million, of which approximately 23% is rural.

Learn more about successes and challenges and find more detailed land governance data in Libya.

Madagascar is a country with an abundance of natural resources that have attracted an increasing number of investments and tourists. The economy of the country is largely dependent on agriculture, which also provides the livelihood for more than 60% of the population. However, the economic growth of the country slowed down after de coup d’etat of 2009, which was in part the consequence of the government’s decision to grant or lease agricultural land to a South Korea company.

Learn more about successes and challenges and find more detailed land governance data in Madagascar.

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