Cities function in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner only when private and public spaces work in a symbiotic relation to enhance each other. Public space generates equality, however in the past decades it has been drastically been reduced. Inadequate, poorly designed, or privatized public spaces generate exclusion and marginalization.
A defining feature of many of the world’s cities is an outward expansion far beyond formal administrative boundaries, largely propelled by the use of the automobile, poor urban and regional planning and land speculation. A large proportion of cities both from developed and developing countries have high consuming suburban expansion patterns which often extend to even further peripheries.
A ENCNB é um instrumento fundamental da prossecução da política de ambiente e na resposta às responsabilidades nacionais e internacionais de reduzir a perda de património natural.
Producing adequate food to meet global demand by 2050 is widely recognized as a major challenge, particularly for Africa south of the Sahara, including Tanzania (Godfray et al. 2010; Alexandratos and Bruinsma 2012; van Ittersum et al. 2016). Increased price volatility of major food crops (Koning et al. 2008; Lagi et al.
Earth observation data can provide valuable assessments for monitoring the spatial extent of (un)sustainable urban growth of the world’s cities to better inform planning policy in reducing associated economic, social and environmental costs. Western Australia has witnessed rapid economic expansion since the turn of the century founded upon extensive natural resource extraction.
As global urban populations grow, green spaces in cities are under increasing pressure to provide urban habitat and perform important ecosystem services.
This is an empirical study of economic measurement of the optimal size of
seven cities in West Sumatra region, Indonesia. The empirical findings are quite interesting
since the calculated optimal city size does not result in a single measure as mostly
previous studies found, but they vary in accordance with the economic approaches used.
Por Rio on Watch