Mining and the illicit trade in minerals have long been the source of social and environmental upheaval in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and coltan, a mineral essential to modern electronics, has become a particular focus of criminal networks. This study reveals a network of organised crime involved in the production and supply chain of coltan, and its connections to
According to South African government records, there are no fewer than 400 abandoned coal mines.The risks from unrehabilitated mines extend far beyond the people who access the sites –they risk polluting the water of millions of South Africans. Coal across South Africa is found predominantly in ores with sulfur-bearing minerals.
Illicit financial flows (IFFs)in the artisanal gold mining sector in Zimbabwe are responsible for leakages of an estimated 3 tonnes of gold, valued at approximately USD157 million every month. The artisanal gold sector has transformed from being a traditional livelihoods option for local families to an anchor of gold smuggling cartels that are robbing the country of the precious metal.
This paper examines the newly established mineral markets in Tanzania. These markets aim to ensure tax revenue collection and enhance the transparency of mineral trade within the artisanal and small-scale mining sector.
This primer gives an accessible overview of key aspects surrounding International Investment Treaties and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, and the implications for promoting a rights-based approach to governance.
This paper provides an overview of the supply chains and flows that run from the mines of northern Mozambique and Malawi, to the international trade hubs of Sri Lanka and Thailand.
The trade in coloured gemstones stretches around the world, linking source countries on almost every continent to international trade hubs, mainly in Asia, and on to retail markets. Mozambique is one such source, sitting atop significant gemstone deposits, including precious and semi-precious stones.
In taking a comprehensive approach to issues of tenure, the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT) offer an opportunity to promote systemic governance reform and respect for land and resource rights, while clarifying the different roles of States, businesses and social actors.