O Encontro Latino-Americano de Movimentos Socioespaciais e Socioterritoriais (ELAMSS) surge de um processo de diálogo em construção realizado por pesquisadores e ativistas sociais de diferentes países que fornecem elementos para uma leitura geográfica dos Movimentos Sociais que se amplia nos conceitos de Movimentos Socioespaciais e Socioterritoriais , para estudar as realidades contemporâneas f
China is now the world’s second largest economy and has seen over the last years the adaptation of a centrally planned economy to allow for private enterprise and capital. This shift is mirrored in its formal land tenure, repesented by a dual system with state-owned land in urban areas, and farmer collective-owned land in rural areas.
Land is an essential source of livelihood for a majority of Sierra Leoneans. Most of Sierra Leone’s population lives in rural areas and it’s GDP is largely based on agriculture. The three main livelihood activities surveyed in the 2015 population and housing census are crop farming, animal husbandry and fishery, which depend largely on access to and ownership of land. Smallholders mostly cultivate rice, cassava, cocoa, coffee, cashew, groundnut, palm oil, vegetables and other fruit trees.
From large land acquisitions that displace communities without due compensation, to the encroachment of mining on indigenous lands, to the brunt of climate change and natural disasters, to everyday land and property deprivation by kin or state, women are typically more harshly impacted by land tenure insecurity due to discriminatory laws and lingering social bias.
Restoration is an urgent correction to the past and current global land degradation trends, to return forest cover, improve food security, and tackle climate change – among other goals. It has been estimated over 2 billion hectares of degraded land provide opportunities for forest and landscape restoration . In September 2011, world leaders launched global Bonn Challenge – a voluntary global initiative that aimed to restore 150 million hectares of degraded land by 2020 .
The global Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) movement is gaining momentum. Thus, it is important to clarify what FLR is, the concepts, opportunities, challenges and its future implications.