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Showing items 1 through 9 of 599.
  1. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1998
    Malawi, Afrique

    The paper departs from the standard practice that takes the estimated marginal effects of either the amount of credit received or membership in a credit program as measures of the impact of access to credit on household welfare. The marginal effects of the formal credit limit variable on household welfare, controlling for the credit limit from informal sources as well as the credit demanded from both sources, measure the marginal effects of access to formal credit.

  2. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1998
    Inde, Asie

    Poverty in rural India has declined substantially in recent decades. This steady decline in poverty was strongly associated with agricultural growth, particularly the green revolution, which in turn was a response to massive public investments in agriculture and rural infrastructure. Public investment in rural areas has also benefitted the poor through its impact on the growth of the rural non-farm economy, and government expenditure on rural poverty and employment programs,which has grown rapidly, has directly benefitted the rural poor.

  3. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1998
    Zimbabwe, Afrique

    Using an agriculture-focused CGE model for Zimbabwe with 1991 as base period, this paper examines quantitatively the income and equity effects of trade liberalization in isolation and in conjunction with potentially complementary changes in fiscal and land policies. Trade policy reform alone (dismantling of import and foreign exchange controls, and reduction of import taxes to a low uniform rate) is shown to increase aggregate disposable household income significantly.

  4. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1999
    Afrique

    Drawing data from four different integrated household surveys in rural areas of Mali, Malawi, and two national surveys in Côte d’Ivoire, this paper tests the validity of proxy measures of household wealth and income that can be readily implemented in health surveys in rural Africa. The assumptions underlying the choice of wealth proxy are described, and correlations with the true value are assessed in two different settings. The expenditure proxy is developed and then tested for replicability in two independent data sets representing the same population.

  5. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1999
    Myanmar

    The purpose of this paper is to understand to what extent such a strategy is appropriate for the low income rice-based countries of the Indochina-Myanmar Region1 (IMR). On the one hand, the arguments in favor of agricultural diversification and agrofood based rural industrialization seem even more pressing than for the lower-middle income countries of Southeast Asia.

  6. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1998

    En este documento de trabajo....se examinan las complejas dificultades que presenta el medio urbano para la seguridad alimentaria y la nutricion en America Latina. Se expresa particular interes en la interaccion de la malnutricion con la salud y la naturaleza de las respuestas institucionales necesarias, en vista de la nueva importancia dada en la region al fomento de la participacion del sector privado y la comunidad en la prestacion de asistencia social.

  7. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1999
    Inde, Asie

    Developing countries allocate scarce government funds to investments in rural areas to achieve the twin goals of agricultural growth and poverty alleviation. Choices have to be made between different types of investments, especially infrastructure, human capital and agricultural research, and between different types of agricultural regions, e.g., irrigated and high- and low-potential rainfed areas. This paper develops an econometric approach and provides empirical evidence on the impact of government investments in rural India using district-level data.

  8. Library Resource
    Documents de politique et mémoires
    janvier, 1998

    Alars que Ie monde se prepare au nouveau millenaire, tous les pays s'efforcent de s'adapter a la mouvance des besoins d'un marche mondial dont la mobilite s'accrolt. A la suite d'annees de distorsions structurales et d'un desinteret generalise quant au secteur agricole du monde en developpement, les echanges commerciaux mondiaux obligent aujourd'hui les economies agraires, plus pauvres, a jauger leurs avantages naturels compares et a s'adapter rapidement.

  9. Library Resource
    Rapports et recherches
    janvier, 1998
    Afrique

    How much extra net income growth can be had in rural areas of Africa by increasing the spending power of local households? The answer depends on how rural households spend increments to income, whether the items desired can be imported to the local area in response to increased demand, and, if not, whether increased demand will lead to new local production or simply to price rises. For every dollar in new farm income earned, at least one additional dollar could be realized from growth multipliers, according to Agricultural Growth Linkages in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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