At the present stage of human development, food is one of the most acute problems. Over the past 30-40 years, the growth rate of population in many countries of the world is ahead of the growth rate of agricultural production, which leads to acute shortage of food.
Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts.
The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2012) predicts increases in the frequency of heavy precipitation in the 21st century over many areas of the globe. Thus, climate change will increase flood and drought frequencies, alter stream geomorphology and habitat availability, as well as increase water temperature, sediments, and nutrient concentration (Sabater & Tockner, 2010).